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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies: any NSAIDs use and PCa incidence risk

From: Effect of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on prostate cancer incidence and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Study location Cases (number) Controls (number) Age (y)a Exposure period Drugs studied Outcome (number) Information source Confounders for adjustment Quality score
Case–control studies           
Veitonmaki, 2013 [37] Finland 24,657 24,657 68 1995–2002 ASA/NSAIDs/ NA-NSAIDs/ COX-2 inhibitors Total/advanced PCa Database 1–5 8
Kopp, 2013 [22] Denmark 334 334 59.0 1993–1997 NSAIDs Total PCa Questionnaire 1, 6, 7 4
Vinogradova, 2011 [21] UK 14,764 192,081 69 1997–2008 COX-2 inhibitors Total PCa Database 1, 8–11 7
Murad, 2011 [36] UK 1,016 5,043 63 2001–2008 ASA/NSAIDs/ NA-NSAIDs Total PCa Questionnaire 1, 12–15 6
Mahmud, 2011 [33] Canada 9,007 36,028 73 1985–2000 ASA/NSAIDs/ NA-NSAIDs Total PCa Database 1, 14–17 6
Salinas, 2010 [32] USA 1,001 942 63 2002–2005 ASA/ NA-NSAIDs/ COX-2 inhibitors Total/advanced PCa Questionnaire 1, 17–18 7
Harris, 2007 [31] USA 229 285 NR 2002–2004 ASA/ NA-NSAIDs/ COX-2 inhibitors Total PCa Interview 1, 6, 19–21 5
Menezes, 2006 [17] USA 1,029 1,029 67 1982–1998 ASA Total/advanced PCa Questionnaire 1, 6, 12 4
Mahmud, 2006 [30] Canada 494 805 64 1999–2003 ASA/ NSAIDs/ NA-NSAIDs/ COX-2 inhibitors Total/advanced PCa Questionnaire 1, 12, 14, 15, 22–25 6
Liu, 2006 [29] USA 506 506 NR 2001–2004 ASA/ NSAIDs / NA-NSAIDs Advanced PCa Interview 1, 18, 26 5
Dasgupta, 2006 [28] Canada 2,025 2,150 73 1999–2002 ASA/ NA-NSAIDs Total PCa Database 1, 27 6
Bosetti, 2006 [16] Italy 1,261 1,131 65 1991–2002 ASA Total/advanced PCa Questionnaire 1, 7, 12, 28 5
Perron, 2003 [26] Canada 2,221 11,105 75.7 1993–1995 ASA/ NA-NSAIDs Total PCa Database 1, 29 6
Irani, 2002 [11] France 639 659 66.8 1999–2000 ASA/ NA-NSAIDs Total PCa Questionnaire 1, 14, 15, 18, 27, 30–32 6
Nelson, 2000 [23] USA 417 420 64.0 1992–1995 NA-NSAIDs/ NSAIDs Total PCa Interview 1, 18, 23 6
Langman, 2000 [35] UK 1,813 5,354 NR 1993–1995 NSAIDs Total PCa Database 1, 9 6
Norrish, 1998 [10] New Zealand 317 480 70.0 1996 ASA/ NSAIDs/ NA-NSAIDs Total/advanced PCa Questionnaire 1, 33–36 7
Neugut, 1998 [9] USA 319 189 69.0 1984–1986 ASA Total PCa Medical notes 1, 18, 13, 22 6
Cohort studies    All subjects (number)   Median follow-up (y)      
Shebl, 2012 [34] USA 3,573 29,450 62.8 11.7 ASA/NA-NSAIDs Total/advanced PCa Questionnaire 1, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 28 6
Dhillon, 2011 [20] USA 4,858 51,529 64.8 18.0 ASA Total/advanced PCa Questionnaire 1, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 20, 31, 36–39 8
Brasky, 2010 [19] USA 1,550 34,132 50–76 NR ASA/ NA-NSAIDs Total/advanced PCa Questionnaire and Database 1, 6, 7, 12, 13, 18, 22, 39–45 5
Jacobs, 2007 [18] USA 1,076 69,810 NR 104,854 person-years ASA Total PCa Questionnaire and medical records 1, 6, 7, 9, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 45–47 7
Platz, 2005 [15] USA 141 1,244 70.0 9.0 ASA/NSAIDs/ NA-NSAIDs Total PCa Questionnaire 1, 14, 15, 23, 37, 7
Jacobs, 2005 [14] USA 4,853 70,144 NR 1992–2001 ASA/NSAIDs/ NA-NSAIDs Total/advanced PCa Questionnaire 1, 7, 12, 13, 18, 22, 45, 7
G-Rodriguez, 2004 [27] UK 2,183 12,183 50–79 1995–2001 ASA/NA-NSAIDs Total/advanced PCa Database 1, 14, 15, 17, 37, 48 8
Sorensen, 2003 [13] Denmark 324 172,057 NR 5.4 NA-NSAIDs Total PCa Database 1, 10, 11 7
Friis, 2003 [12] Denmark 196 29,470 70.0 4.1 ASA Total PCa Database 1, 10, 11 7
Roberts, 2002 [25] USA 91 1,362 64.0 5.5 NSAIDs Total PCa Questionnaire 1, 10, 12, 20 7
Habel, 2002 [24] USA 2,574 90,100 18–84 14.0 ASA Total/advanced PCa Questionnaire 1, 7, 17, 18, 6
Schreinemachers, 1994 [8] USA 123 12,668 65.0 12.4 ASA Total PCa Interview 1, 7, 9, 18, 21 5
Paganini-Hill, 1989 [7] USA 149 5106 73 6.5 ASA Total PCa Questionnaire 1 3
  1. aaverage, median or range.Confounders for adjustment: 1, age; 2, benign prostatic hyperplasia medication use; 3, anti-diabetic medication; 4, cholesterol-lowering medication use; 5, antihypertensive medication use; 6, body mass index; 7, school education; 8, deprivation; 9, smoking; 10, comorbidities; 11, use of medication; 12, family history of prostate cancer; 13, diabetes status; 14, aspirin use; 15, any NA-NSAID use; 16, ever visited a urologist 1 to 11 years prior; 17, screened and volume of family physician visits; 18, race; 19, family history; 20, physical activity; 21, alcohol intake; 22, history of heart disease; 23, intake of acetaminophen; 24, reasons for referral and prostate volume; 25, selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors use; 26, medical institution; 27, finasteride use; 28, study center; 29, recent medical contacts; 30, farming; 31, frequency of red meat and red wine consumption; 32, urological center; 33, socio-economic status; 34, total polyunsaturated fat consumption; 35, α-linolenic acid; 36, fatty acids; 37, period; 38, height; 39, vitamin; 40, osteoarthritis; 41, rheumatoid arthritis; 42, chronic joint pain; 43, chronic headaches; 44, migraines; 45, PSA test in the past two years; 46, history of colorectal endoscopy; 47, hypertension; 48, prior benign prostate hyperplasia history. ASA, aspirin; COX-2, cyclooxygenase enzymes-2; NA-NSAIDs, non-aspirin NSAIDs; NR, not reported; PCa, prostate cancer; y, years.