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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies: any NSAIDs use and prostate cancer-specific mortality

From: Effect of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on prostate cancer incidence and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Study location Study design PCa Cases (number) Died from PCa (number) Age (y) Median follow-up (y) Drugs studied Treatment Tumor stage Confounders for adjustment Quality score
Flahavan, 2014 [39] Ireland Cohort 2,936 104 70.5 5.5 Aspirin PR, RT, ADT I–III 1–8 8
Grytli, 2014 [40] Norway Cohort 3,561 1,010 76.3 3.3 Aspirin ADT I–IV 1, 2, 9–13 7
Cardwell, 2013 [41] UK Nested case–control 6,339 1,184 NR 6.0 Aspirin PR, RT, ADT, EST I–IV 1, 4, 8, 13–17 7
Dhillon, 2012 [42] USA Cohort 3,986 265 68.6 8.4 Aspirin/NSAIDs/ NA-NSAIDs PR, RT, EST I–IIIab 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 18–29 7
Choe, 2012 [43] USA Cohort 5,955 193 64.0 5.8 Aspirin RP, RT I–IV 1, 2, 9, 10, 29–31 8
Stock, 2008 [44] Canada Case–control 1,619 453 67.2 NR NSAIDs RP, RT I–IV 1, 2, 9, 21 7
Ratnasinghe, 2004 [45] USA Cohort NR 121 25–74 NR Aspirin NR NR 1, 4, 19, 21, 32–33 6
Lipworth, 2004 [46] Denmark Cohort NR 296 48.4 4.3 NA-NSAIDs NR NR 1, 33 5
  1. Confounders for adjustment: 1, age; 2, tumor grade; 3, tumor size; 4, smoking status; 5, co-morbidity score; 6, year of incidence; 7, pre-diagnostic statin exposure 8, receipt of radiation; 9, prostate-specific antigen level; 10, Gleason score; 11, presence and type of metastases; 12, performance status; 13, androgen deprivation therapy initiated within six months after diagnosis; 14, year of cancer diagnosis; 15, chemotherapy within six months of diagnosis; 16, estrogen therapy during exposure period; 17, comorbidities; 18, family history; 19, race; 20, height; 21, body mass index; 22, vigorous physical activity; 23, vitamin D; 24, fish; 25, red meat; 26, cholesterol-lowering drugs; 27, total kcal; 28, aspirin use before diagnosis; 29, initial treatment; 30, aspirin use; 31, non-aspirin anticoagulant use; 32, poverty index; 33, education; 33, number of prescriptions. ADT, androgen-deprivation therapy; EST, estrogen therapy; NA-NSAIDs, non-aspirin NSAIDs; NR: not reported; RP, radical prostatectomy; RT, radiation therapy; y, years.