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Table 1 Subgroup analysis of randomized controlled trials reporting overall fruit and vegetable intakes

From: Effectiveness of dietary interventions among adults of retirement age: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Variable (Number of studies or subgroups) [Reference numbers] Mean difference in F&V (95% CI) P(Z-test) Heterogeneity I 2% (95% CI)
Study design    
RCTs (n = 22) [8, 2729, 31, 33, 34, 3645] 97.0 (75.5, 118.6) <0.0001 94 (93 to 96)
Cluster-RCTs (n = 5) [17, 32, 4648] 30.8 (9.9, 51.8) 0.004 67 (26 to 88)
Ethnicity    
Mainly Black (n = 4) [32, 34, 37, 43] 82.5 (47.6, 117.4) <0.0001 61 (0 to 87)
Mainly white Caucasians (n = 23) [8, 17, 2729, 31, 33, 36, 3842, 4448] 87.5 (63.8, 112.8) <0.0001 97 (96 to 98)
Origin of studies    
America (n = 14) [31, 32, 34, 3639, 4143, 4548] 112.6 (77.9, 147.3) <0.0001 98 (97 to 98)
Europe (n = 9) [8, 17, 28, 29, 33, 40] 58.1 (45.0, 71.2) <0.0001 49 (0 to 76)
Asia (n = 3) [27, 44] 61.4 (29.4, 93.4) 0.0002 0 (0 to 90)
Sex    
Women only (n = 7) [36, 38, 39, 42, 45, 46, 48] 117.6 (75.7 to 159.5) <0.0001 97 (96 to 98)
Men and women (n = 16) [8, 2729, 3134, 37, 40, 41, 44] 64.3 (53.6 to 75.0) 0.0001 38 (0 to 66)
Men only (n = 4) [17, 38, 43, 47] 120.4 (-19.9 to 260.8) 0.09 99 (98 to 99)
Follow-up time    
4 to 12 months (n = 23) [17, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 3744, 4649] 85.6 (59.0 to 112.1) <0.0001 92 (90 to 94)
13 to 58 months (n = 15) [8, 17, 28, 3234, 3638, 45, 47] 87.0 (53.2 to 120.9) 0.0001 98 (97 to 98)
Health status    
With health risk factors (n = 15) [8, 28, 3133, 37, 38, 40, 44, 47] 82.7 (49.4 to 116.1) 0.0001 95 (93 to 97)
Healthy participants (n = 11) [17, 27, 29, 34, 36, 39, 4143, 45],[46, 48] 91.5 (62.7 to 120.4) <0.0001 96 (94 to 97)
Mode of intervention delivery    
Face to face (n = 16) [8, 17, 2729, 32, 36, 3841, 4345, 47] 97.6 (69.2 to 125.9) <0.0001 97 (98 to 99)
Indirect (for example, telephone, post) (n = 10) [31, 33, 34, 37, 42, 44, 46, 48] 68.4 (40.8 to 94.5) <0.0001 64 (29 to 82)