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Table 1 Characteristics of included cohort studies

From: Obesity survival paradox in pneumonia: a meta-analysis

Author Study design Year Location Gender Age (y) Years of follow-up (y) Assessment of weight and height Sample size Cases ascertainment No. of cases Type BMI category (kg/m2) Adjustment for covariates
Incidence              
Delgado-Rodriguez PC 1997 Spain Mixed 53 2 Measured 1,483 Physician-diagnosed 19 HAP <33.75, ≥33.75 Mechanical ventilation, upper abdominal surgery, COPD, NNIS index
Baik PC 2000 USA Mixed 56.3 (men) 36.4 (women) 6 Self-reported 104,491 Physician-diagnosed 595 CAP <21, 21–22.9, 23–24.9, 25–26.9, 27–29.9, ≥30 Age, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol intake
Newell PC 2007 USA Mixed 45 5 Measured 1,543 NA 315 HAP 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, 30.0–39.9, ≥40 Age, gender, injury severity score, revised trauma score
Yap RC 2007 Australia Mixed 66.4 6 Measured 3,968 Physician-diagnosed 174 HAP <20, 20–30, 30–40, ≥40 Age, gender, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, renal impairment, preoperative dialysis, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, lung disease, NYHA class IV, severe LV impairment, mean PA pressure, emergency status and total bypass time
Dossett PC 2008 USA Mixed 45 NA Measured 1,406 Physician-diagnosed 446 HAP <18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, 30.0–39.9, ≥40 Age, gender, TRISS, AIS head score
Mannino PC 2008 USA Mixed >45 3 Measured 20,375 ICD-9 codes 480-486 214 CAP <20, 20–24, 25–29, ≥30 Age, gender, race, smoking status, education level, diabetes status, cardiovascular disease status
Kornum PC 2010 Denmark Mixed 50-64 11.8 Measured 48,551 ICD-10 codes J12.x–J18.x, ICD-10codes A709.x, ICD-10 codes A481.x 2,112 CAP <22.5, 22.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9,30.0–34.9, ≥35 Age, smoking status, alcohol intake, schooling, educational level
Morgan RC 2010 USA Mixed >20 1 Measured 196,684 Physician-diagnosed 134 CAP <18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, 30-39.9, ≥40 Age, gender, chronic disease
Blumentals RC 2011 UK Mixed >18 7 NA 1,074,315 NA 877 CAP <18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, ≥30 Age, gender, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, statin use, antibiotic use, cigarette smoking status, influenza vaccination status, and year of index date
Kwong RC 2011 Canada Mixed >18 12 Self-reported 82,545 ICD-9 codes 480–486, ICD-10-CM codes J10-J18 228 CAP <18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, ≥30 Age, gender, influenza vaccination status, rural residence, income quintile, smoking status, previous hospitalizations, previous outpatient visits, and the presence of chronic disease
Viasus RC 2011 Spain Mixed 39 NA NA 585 Physician-diagnosed 11 CAP <30, 30–39.9, ≥40 Age, gender, smoking, alcohol drinking, comorbid condition, influenza vaccine, early antiviral treatment, concomitant and/or secondary bacterial co-infection
Phung PC 2013 Australia Mixed 33 15.6 Measured 677 ICD-9 codes 480–486, ICD-10 codes J12-J18 141 CAP <18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, ≥30 Age, smoking, alcohol consumption status
Mortality              
LaCROIX PC 1989 USA Mixed 65.8 12 Measured 5474 ICD-9 codes 480-486 76 CAP Lowest quartile, Second quartile,Third quartile, Highest quartile Age
Salive PC 1993 USA Mixed 74 6 Self-reported 10,269 ICD-9 codes 480-486 403 CAP Lowest quartile, Second quartile,Third quartile, Highest quartile Age, race, education, co-morbidities, smoking, peak expiratory flow, emphysema, exercise
Lange PC 1995 Denmark Mixed 30-70 12 NA 13,423 ICD-8 codes 480-486 260 CAP <20, 20–29, ≥30 Age, predicted forced expiratory volume in one second
Jee PC 2006 Korea Mixed 46 15 Measured 1,213,829 ICD-10 962 CAP <18.5, 18.5–19.9, 20.0–21.4, 21.5–22.9, 23.0–24.9, 25.0–26.4,26.5–27.9, 28.0–29.9, 30.0–31.9 Age, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical exercise, physical activity
Inoue PC 2007 Japan Mixed 57.6 13 Measured 110,792 ICD-9 codes 480-486 ICD-10 codes J12-J18 1,082 CAP 10.0–17.9, 18.0–22.9, 23.0–24.9,25.0–32.9 Age, diabetes mellitus
Takata PC 2007 Japan Mixed 80 4 Measured 697 ICD-10 19 CAP <18.5, 18.5–24.9, ≥25 Gender, tobacco use, alcohol use, weight loss, current outpatient, systolic blood pressure, physical activity, functional status, marital status, and levels of total serum cholesterol and glucose
Corrales-Medina RC 2011 USA Mixed 65.5 7 Measured 266 Physician-diagnosed 31 CAP <18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, >30 Age, race, cancer, CURB-65
King RC 2012 USA Mixed 67.5 7 Measured 18,746 ICD-9 codes 480-487 3,340 CAP <18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, 30-39.9, >40 Age, gender, marital status, race, count of current medications, medical and psychiatric comorbid conditions, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, and drug abuse
Kahlon PC 2012 Canada Mixed 68 2 Measured 907 Physician-diagnosed 79 CAP <18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, >30 Age, functional status, prior pneumococcal vaccination, chest radiograph confirmation, PSI
Singanayagam PC 2013 UK Mixed 50-78 NA Measured 1,079 Physician-diagnosed 103 CAP <18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9,30.0–34.9 Age, gender, co-morbidities, current smoking, functional status, nursing home residence, PSI
  1. AIS, abbreviated injury score; BMI, body mass index; CAP, community-acquired pneumonia; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, CURB-65, confusion, urea >7 mmol/L, respiratory rate ≥30 breaths/minute, low blood pressure and age ≥65 years; F, female; HAP, hospital-acquired pneumonia; ICD, International Classification of Diseases; LV, left ventricle; M, male; NA, not available; NNIS, National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PC, prospective cohort; PSI, Pneumonia Severity Index; RC, retrospective cohort; TRISS, trauma-related injury severity score.