Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Descriptive statistics of total study sample and the categories of muscle strength

From: Muscle strength in adolescent men and risk of cardiovascular disease events and mortality in middle age: a prospective cohort study

   Categories of muscle strength
Characteristics Total sample Low Average High
  n = 38,588 n = 9,647 n = 19,294 n = 9,647
Mean age at start of follow-up 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.0
Mean height in centimeters (SD) 178.0 (6.3) 176.4 (6.5) 178.0 (6.2) 179.5 (6.1)
Mean mass in kilograms (SD) 66.5 (9.3) 60.9 (7.8) 66.3 (8.0) 72.4 (9.4)
Mean arm flexion strength in N (SD) 370 (79) 292 (39) 364 (48) 460 (69)
Mean knee extension strength in N (SD) 533 (103) 431 (67) 532 (69) 638 (85)
Mean hand grip strength in N (SD) 608 (98) 508 (63) 605 (64) 711 (77)
Body mass index (%)     
 <18.5 5,323 (13.8) 3,169 (32.8) 1,971 (10.2) 183 (1.9)
 18.5 to 24.9 30,697 (79.6) 6,246 (64.7) 16,340 (84.7) 8,111 (84.1)
 ≥25 to 29.9 2,242 (5.8) 204 (2.1) 880 (4.6) 1,158 (12.0)
 ≥30 326 (0.8) 28 (0.3) 103 (0.5) 195 (2.0)
Smoking (%)     
 Non-smoker 15,754 (40.8) 4,125 (42.8) 7,664 (39.7) 3,965 (41.1)
 1 to 10 daily cigarettes 12,646 (32.8) 3,128 (32.4) 6,438 (33.4) 3,080 (31.9)
 10+ daily cigarettes 10,188 (26.4) 2,394 (24.8) 5,192 (26.9) 2,602 (27.0)
Alcohol as grams/week (%)* n = 37,620 n = 9,401 n = 18,799 n = 9,420
 0 2,331 (6.2) 738 (7.9) 1,058 (5.6) 535 (5.7)
 1 to 100 22,923 (60.9) 5,643 (60.0) 11,473 (61.0) 5,807 (61.6)
 101 to 250 9,529 (25.3) 2,354 (25.0) 4,800 (25.5) 2,375 (25.2)
 251+ 2,837 (7.5) 666 (7.1) 1,468 (7.8) 703 (7.5)
Cardiorespiratory fitness (%)* n = 30,941 n = 7,174 n = 15,694 n = 8,073
 Low 15,509 (50.1) 3,403 (47.4) 7,910 (50.4) 4,196 (52.0)
 High 15,432 (49.9) 3,771 (52.6) 7,784 (49.6) 3,877 (48.0)
Attained education 1990 (%)* n = 35,332 n = 8,815 n = 17,678 n = 8,839
 9 years or less 12,534 (35.5) 2,887 (32.8) 6,057 (34.3) 3,590 (40.6)
 Secondary 14,188 (40.2) 3,432 (38.9) 7,270 (41.1) 3,486 (39.4)
 Higher 8,610 (24.4) 2,496 (28.3) 4,351 (24.6) 1,763 (19.9)
Parental socioeconomic status (%)* n = 38,581 n = 9,645 n = 19,290 n = 9,646
 Blue collar 19,469 (50.5) 4,674 (48.5) 9,729 (50.4) 5,066 (52.5)
 Lower white collar 10,986 (28.5) 2,696 (28.0) 5,492 (28.5) 2,798 (29.0)
 Upper white collar 6,214 (16.1) 1,822 (18.9) 3,110 (16.1) 1,282 (13.3)
 Other 1,912 (5.0) 453 (4.7) 959 (5.0) 500 (5.2)
  1. SD = Standard deviation.
  2. *The numbers represent the subjects with covariate information available.