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Table 2 Hazard ratio of CVD events and mortality by muscle strength with average strength as reference

From: Muscle strength in adolescent men and risk of cardiovascular disease events and mortality in middle age: a prospective cohort study

  Low strength (HR, 95% CI) High strength (HR, 95% CI)
Outcome Model I* Model II Model I* Model II
Middle age morbidity     
 CVD events§ 0.99 (0.88 to 1.10) 0.99 (0.86 to 1.13) 0.91 (0.81 to 1.02) 0.88 (0.77 to 0.99)
Middle age mortality     
 CVD 1.23 (1.01 to 1.51) 1.31 (1.02 to 1.67) 1.11 (0.92 to 1.34) 0.98 (0.78 to 1.24)
 All-cause 1.17 (1.06 to 1.29) 1.18 (1.04 to 1.33) 1.03 (0.94 to 1.14) 0.98 (0.87 to 1.10)
Total|| mortality     
 CVD 1.28 (1.06 to 1.55) 1.21 (0.96 to 1.51) 1.08 (0.90 to 1.30) 1.03 (0.84 to 1.28)
 All-cause 1.16 (1.07 to 1.27) 1.14 (1.03 to 1.26) 1.03 (0.95 to 1.12) 1.04 (0.95 to 1.15)
  1. CI, Confidence interval; CVD, Cardiovascular disease; HR, Hazard ratio.
  2. Significant results are in bold (α = 0.05).
  3. * = Adjusted for body mass index, smoking.
  4.  = Main model. Adjusted for body mass index, smoking, alcohol, cardiorespiratory fitness, education (n = 27,766, that is, 74.0% of subjects in model I).
  5.  = typically from age 39 years (1991 to 2010).
  6. § = coronary heart disease or stroke diagnosis (excluding transient ischemic attack) from in-patient care.
  7. || = typically from age 19 years (1970 to 2011/2012).
  8.  = Model includes parental socioeconomic status instead of the subject’s education as follow-up starts in adolescence (n = 30,186, that is, 78.2% of subjects in model I).