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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of derivation and validation samples

From: Predictive score for mortality in patients with COPD exacerbations attending hospital emergency departments

  Derivation Validation Pvalue
N n (%)a N n (%)a  
Age, yearsb 1242 72.32 ± 9.81 1244 73.23 ± 9.51 0.02
Male sex 1242 1136 (91.47) 1242 1131 (91.06) 0.72
Baseline FEV 1046   1023   
≥50   367 (35.09)   352 (34.41) 0.75
<50   679 (64.91)   671 (65.59)  
Charlson Comorbidity Indexb 1243 2.25 ± 1.55 1244 2.89 ± 1.6 0.79
Previous use of LTHOT or NIMV at home 1243 424 (34.11) 1244 417 (33.52) 0.76
Number of COPD-related admissions in the previous 12 monthsbd 1228 0.84 ± 1.37 1223 0.83 ± 1.38 0.65
Altered consciousness 1242 31 (2.50) 1243 39 (3.14) 0.33
Presence of edema 1164 225 (19.33) 1168 211 (18.07) 0.43
Dyspnea upon ED arrival 1182 803 (67.94) 1179 798 (67.68) 0.9
Heart rate upon ED arrivalb 1168 95.51 ± 19.35 1163 94.32 ± 18.69 0.1
Use of inspiratory accessory muscle upon ED arrival 1243 248 (19.95) 1244 262 (21.06) 0.49
Breathing frequency upon ED arrival 1135   1132   0.8
<20 breaths/min   186 (16.39)   188 (16.61)  
20 to 24 breaths/min   506 (44.58)   489 (43.2)  
>24 breaths/min   443 (39.03)   455 (40.19)  
pH upon ED arrival 1147   1148   0.3
≥7.35   986 (85.96)   1005 (87.54)  
7.26 to 7.35   136 (11.86)   114 (9.93)  
<7.26   25 (2.18)   29 (2.53)  
PO2 upon ED arrival 1137   1141   0.77
>60 (O2 saturation >90%)   563 (49.52)   571 (50.04)  
45 to 60 (O2 saturation <90%)   420 (36.94)   427 (37.42)  
≤45   154 (13.54)   143 (12.53)  
PCO2 upon ED arrival 1078   1076   0.65
≤45   603 (55.94)   629 (58.46)  
45 to 55   249 (23.1)   235 (21.84)  
55 to 65   127 (11.78)   114( 10.59)  
>65   99 (9.18)   98 (9.11)  
Baseline dyspnea (MRC scale) 1243   1244   0.13
Missing   121(9.73)   129(10.37)  
Grade 1   87 (7)   101 (8.12)  
Grade 2   321 (25.82)   279 (22.43)  
Grade 3   247 (19.87)   254 (20.42)  
Grade 4   345 (27.76)   327 (26.29)  
Grade 5   122 (9.81)   154 (12.38)  
Outcomes      
Short-term mortalityc 1243 30 (2.41) 1244 29 (2.33) 0.89
1-month mortality 1243 40 (3.22) 1244 48 (3.86) 0.39
  1. Abbreviations: COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ED emergency department, FEV forced expiratory volume, LTHOT long-term home oxygen therapy, NIMV non-invasive mechanical ventilation, PCO 2 carbon dioxide partial pressure, PO 2 oxygen partial pressure.
  2. aUnless otherwise specified.
  3. bMean ± SD.
  4. cDuring hospital admission or within 1 week of discharge to home from the ED.
  5. dNumber of COPD-related admissions in the previous 12 months, median (25th to 75th percentile): 0 (0–1) in both samples.