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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Phase II trial of standard versus increased transfusion volume in Ugandan children with acute severe anemia

  Arm A: Tx20 Arm B: Tx30 Total
20 ml/kg 30 ml/kg
Variable (Number = 82) (Number = 78) (Number = 160)
Demographic and anthropometric characteristics    
Age months median (IQR) 36 (19 to 54) 31 (11 to 48) 36 (13 to 53)
Female sex – n/ total n (%) 41/82 (50) 40/77 (52) 81/159 (51)
Mid-upper arm Circumference ≤11.5 cm – n/total n (%) 1/80 (1) 3/78 (4) 4/158 (3)
Weight kg - median (IQR) 13 (9-16) 11 (8-15) 12 (9-15)
Findings at presentation    
Axillary temperature    
 >37.5°C – n/total n (%) 39/81 (48) 37/78 (47) 76/159 (48)
 <36°C (Hypothermia) – n/total n (%) 3/81 (4) 4/78 (5) 7/159 (4)
Oxygen saturation <90% - n/total n (%) 9/78 (12) 9/78 (12) 18/156 (12)
Moderate hypotension - n (%) 5 (6) 6 (8) 11 (7)
Dehydration - n (%) 6 (7) 6 (8) 12 (8)
Severe pallor (lips, gums, or inner eyelids) - n (%) 81 (99) 76 (97) 157 (98)
Consciousness level – n (%)    
 Total n 81 78 159
 Alert 51 (63) 56 (72) 107 (67)
 Prostration 29 (36) 20 (26) 49 (31)
 Coma 1 (1) 2 (3) 3 (2)
Convulsions during this illness - n (%) 6 (7) 13 (17) 19 (12)
Hemoglobinuria (dark urine) - n (%) 29 (35) 26 (33) 55 (34)
Jaundice visible to clinician - n (%) 43 (52) 44 (56) 87 (54)
Respiratory rate breaths/minute    
 mean ± sd 47 ± 15 47 ± 13 47 ± 14
 respiratory distress – n (%) 41 (50) 43 (55) 84 (53)
Heart rate beats/minute    
 median (IQR) 153 (136 to 173) 156 (142 to 168) 155 (139 to 170)
 Bradycardia (<80) - n (%) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1(1)
 Severe tachycardia - n (%)a 30 (37) 26 (33) 56 (35)
Hepatomegaly – n/total n (%) 32/82 (39) 25/77 (32) 57/159 (36)
Laboratory assessment    
Hemoglobin - n (%)    
 Median (IQR) 4.2 (3.0 to 4.8) 4.3 (3.3 to 4.9) 4.2 (3.1 to 4.9)
 <4 g/dl 37 (45) 36 (46) 73 (46)
Glucose – n/ total n (%)    
 <2.5 mmol/liter (45 mg/dl) 2/82 (2) 0/75 (0) 2/157 (1)
 <3.0 mmol/liter (54 mg/dl) 2/82 (2) 0/75 (0) 2/157 (1)
Lactate ≥5 mmol/liter – n/total n (%) 23/82 (28) 26/76 (34) 49/158 (31)
Positive for HIV antibody - n/ total n (%) 1/39 (3) 0/38 (0) 1/77 (1)
Positive for malaria parasitemia - n (%)    
 Negative on all tests done 33 (40) 32 (41) 65(41)
 RDT positive, slide negative/unknown 13 (16) 15 (19) 28 (18)
 RDT negative/unknown, slide positive 4 (5) 3 (4) 7 (4)
 RDT positive, slide positive 32 (39) 28 (36) 60 (38)
Genotypes    
Sickle cell– n (%)    
 AA (normal) 63 (77) 57 (73) 120 (75)
 AS (sickle cell trait) 2 (2) 6 (8) 8 (5)
 SS (sickle cell anemia) 17 (21) 15 (19) 32 (20)
Alpha thalassemia – n (%)    
 Normal 45 (60) 48 (65) 93 (62)
 Heterozygote 24 (32) 24 (32) 48 (32)
 Homozygote 6 (8) 2 (3) 8 (5)
G6PD deficiency – n (%)    
 Normal 56 (77) 55 (79) 111 (78)
 Heterozygote/Hemizygoteb 8 (11) 7 (10) 15 (10)
 Homozygote 9 (12) 8 (11) 17 (12)
  1. Note: denominators are all children randomized unless otherwise shown; adefined as heart rate (HR) >180 for <1 year old, HR >160 for <5 years old, HR >140 for more than 5 years old; bfemale heterozygote/male hemizygote. IQR, interquartile range; n, number; RDT, rapid diagnostic test; sd, standard deviation.