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Table 4 Bivariate relationships between participant demographics, individual ACEs and ACE count

From: National household survey of adverse childhood experiences and their relationship with resilience to health-harming behaviors in England

  Individual ACEs ACE count
Parental separation Childhood abuse Household member 0 1 2 to 3 4+
Verbal Physical Sexual Mental illness Domestic violence Alcohol abuse Incarceration Drug abuse  
Prevalence, % 22.6 17.3 14.3 6.2 12.1 12.1 9.1 4.1 3.9 53.6 22.7 15.4 8.3
Age, years              
18 to 29 34.6 17.4 11.4 4.8 13.1 10.2 10.1 6.7 6.1 47.2 25.0 19.1 8.6
30 to3 9 25.1 18.9 14.6 6.0 12.7 14.0 11.3 5.8 6.3 52.8 21.8 14.2 11.1
40 to 49 25.9 19.5 15.6 7.2 13.0 14.2 10.4 3.6 3.9 51.1 23.6 14.6 10.7
50 to 59 16.6 17.3 16.7 7.4 11.6 12.6 8.3 2.7 2.1 58.2 19.3 14.2 8.3
60 to 69 10.1 13.4 13.7 5.6 10.1 9.7 5.3 1.2 1.0 59.5 23.1 14.4 3.0
χ² 161.302 12.498 10.329 6.548 4.889 13.253 21.283 41.206 46.586 71.239
P <0.001 0.014 0.035 0.162 0.299 0.010 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Sex              
Male 21.4 15.8 14.9 4.5 10.0 11.5 7.9 3.7 3.8 54.3 23.8 15.0 6.9
Female 23.6 18.5 13.9 7.5 13.8 12.6 10.0 4.4 4.0 53.1 21.8 15.6 9.5
χ² 2.802 5.116 0.888 14.729 13.093 1.097 4.994 1.355 0.097 9.628
P 0.094 0.024 0.346 <0.001 <0.001 0.295 0.025 0.244 0.755 0.022
Deprivation quintile a             
1 16.8 12.7 10.4 5.1 10.6 8.3 5.2 1.4 1.8 59.1 24.9 11.6 4.3
2 21.8 17.2 13.6 5.3 11.5 12.8 9.1 3.3 3.4 52.5 25.1 14.8 7.7
3 22.5 15.5 14.2 5.2 12.9 11.2 8.4 3.0 3.1 54.2 23.1 15.9 6.8
4 24.3 18.4 14.9 7.6 11.3 12.3 10.1 5.8 5.4 53.8 18.9 17.3 10.0
(most deprived) 5 27.7 22.6 18.5 7.4 14.1 15.8 12.5 6.7 5.8 48.8 21.5 17.1 12.7
χ² 28.715 29.779 21.916 8.875 6.075 21.608 27.001 37.976 23.569 66.372
P <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.064 0.194 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Ethnicity              
White 23.9 17.7 13.9 6.4 12.6 11.9 9.5 3.9 3.9 52.1 23.9 15.7 8.3
Asian 5.5 10.4 12.7 3.2 7.1 11.7 5.8 2.9 2.9 70.1 14.6 10.1 5.2
Other 26.5 20.2 22.9 7.2 11.2 15.2 8.1 8.1 5.8 54.7 14.8 18.4 12.1
χ² 56.670 12.028 14.390 5.136 8.109 2.221 4.738 10.425 2.959 49.138
P <0.001 0.002 0.001 0.077 0.017 0.329 0.094 0.005 0.228 <0.001
Adjusted ACE prevalence b 24.3 18.2 14.8 6.3 12.0 13.1 9.7 4.3 4.1 52.1 22.8 16.1 9.0
  1. Abbreviations: ACE adverse childhood experience.
  2. aFrom 1 (least deprived) to 5 (most deprived).
  3. bAdjusted to English national population by age, sex, ethnicity and deprivation quintile of residence. Sources for population data: Office for National Statistics Lower Super Output Area population estimates mid-2012, [21] and 2011 Census [22].