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Table 1 Clinical and biochemical characteristics and use of medications of the study cohort stratified by cancer status

From: Additive effects of blood glucose lowering drugs, statins and renin-angiotensin system blockers on all-site cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes

  Patients without cancer Patients with cancer  
(n = 5,832) (n = 271)
  Median (IQRa) or % ( n) Median (IQRa) or % ( n) P
Baseline variables    
Age (years) 57 (20) 66 (15) <0.0001b
Male gender 45.8% (2,669) 51.3% (139) 0.0743c
Employment status    <0.0001c
 Full-time 33.1% (1,928) 17.7% (48)  
 Housewife 28.6% (1,665) 28.8% (78)  
 Retired 27.9% (1,628) 46.5% (126)  
 Others 10.5% (611) 7.0% (19)  
Smoking status    <0.0001c
 Ex-smoker 15.10% (878) 18.7% (38)  
 Current smoker 14.8% (862) 23.2% (47)  
Alcohol drinking status    <0.0001c
 Ex-drinker 11.8% (688) 21.0% (51)  
 Current drinker 7.3% (427) 7.4% (20)  
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.8 (4.9) 24.3 (4.7) 0.1296b
Duration of diabetes (years) 6 (9) 8 (10) 0.0202b
Glycated hemoglobin HbA1c (%) 7.2 (2.0) 7.4 (2.3) 0.3586b
Systolic BP (mmHg) 134 (27) 137 (25) 0.0011b
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 75 (14) 75 (16) 0.6152b
Glycated hemoglobin (%) 7.2 (2.0) 7.4 (2.3) 0.3586b
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.10 (1.23) 3.10 (1.30) 0.8872b
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.26 (0.43) 1.25 (0.51) 0.3846b
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.34 (1.02) 1.23 (0.77) 0.0014b
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.10 (1.33) 5.00 (1.42) 0.3083b
ACR (mg/mmol) 2.06 (10.47) 3.45 (14.18) 0.0023b
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 103.1 (41.6) 98.8 (37.3) 0.0184b
Prior myocardial infarction 2.0% (114) 2.6% (7) 0.4683d
Prior stroke 4.5% (261) 3.7% (10) 0.5396c
Death (all-cause) during follow-up 6.3% (369) 50.2% (163) <0.0001c
Use of medications 2.5 years prior to enrolment    
 Statins 15.5% (903) 10.3% (28) 0.0211c
 Fibrates 4.5% (261) 3.3% (9) 0.3664c
 ACEIs/ARBs 29.5% (1,718) 28.8% (78) 0.8114c
 Insulin 23.9% (1,394) 25.8% (70) 4676c
 Metformin 56.6% (3,303) 52.4% (142) 0.1691c
 Sulphonylurea 62.4% (3,640) 63.5% (172) 0.7260c
 TZDs 0.5% (28) 0.4% (1) 0.7949c
Use of medications during follow-up e    
 Statins 38.6% (2,249) 22.5% (61) <0.0001c
 Fibrates 10.2% (595) 5.9% (16) 0.0212c
 ACEIs/ARBs 57.9% (3,378) 52.4% (142) 0.0720c
 Insulin 37.7% (2197) 36.2% (98) 0.6161c
 Metformin 74.5% (4,347) 63.8% (173) <0.0001c
 Sulphonylurea 71.3% (4,160) 69.4% (188) 0.4864c
 TZDs 6.8% (398) 0.7% (2) <0.0001c
  1. ainterquartile range, IQR, for variables with skewed distribution; bderived from the Wilcoxon two-sample test; cderived from Chi-squared test; dderived from the Fisher’s exact test; eincluding use started on or before enrolment but continued during follow-up period. ACEIs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ACR, spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio; ARBs, angiotensin II receptor blockers; BP, blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; IQR, interquartile range; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; RAS, renin-angiotensin system; TZD, thiazolidinedione.