Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Risk of cardiovascular events and mortality according to baseline total olive oil intake

From: Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study

  Energy-adjusted tertiles of total olive oil, g/day   
  1 (low) (n = 2,405) 2 (n = 2,406) 3 (high) (n = 2,405) P for trend Energy-adjusted total olive oil intake (10 g/d)
Mean total olive oil intake 21.4 ± 8.00 38.8 ± 11.6 56.9 ± 10.8   
Major event      
Cardiovascular event, % (n) 4.5 (108) 3.6 (86) 3.5 (83)   3.8 (277)
Multivariable model 1 1 (Ref.) 0.76 (0.57, 1.02) 0.66 (0.48, 0.90) 0.01 0.87 (0.81, 0.94)
Multivariable model 2 1 (Ref.) 0.78 (0.58, 1.04) 0.64 (0.46, 0.87) 0.01 0.87 (0.81, 0.94)
Multivariable model 3 1 (Ref.) 0.78 (0.58, 1.04) 0.65 (0.47, 0.89) 0.01 0.87 (0.81, 0.94)
Cardiovascular mortality 1 (low) (n = 2,405) 2 (n = 2,406) 3 (high) (n = 2,405) P for trend  
Cardiovascular mortality, % (n) 1.4 (33) 1.0 (25) 1.0 (23)   1.1 (81)
Multivariable model 1 1 (Ref.) 0.68 (0.39, 1.16) 0.52 (0.29, 0.94) 0.04 0.83 (0.72, 0.96)
Multivariable model 2 1 (Ref.) 0.70 (0.41, 1.20) 0.51 (0.28, 0.92) 0.04 0.83 (0.72, 0.95)
Multivariable model 3 1 (Ref.) 0.69 (0.40, 1.18) 0.52 (0.29, 0.93) 0.04 0.84 (0.73, 0.96)
Cancer mortality 1 (low) (n = 2,405) 2 (n = 2,406) 3 (high) (n = 2,405) P for trend  
Cancer mortality, % (n) 1.8 (44) 2.0 (49) 1.5 (37)   1.8 (130)
Multivariable model 1 1 (Ref.) 1.13 (0.74, 1.72) 0.80 (0.49, 1.30) 0.96 0.93 (0.83, 1.05)
Multivariable model 2 1 (Ref.) 1.13 (0.74, 1.72) 0.84 (0.52, 1.36) 0.95 0.95 (0.84, 1.07)
Multivariable model 3 1 (Ref.) 1.13 (0.74, 1.72) 0.84 (0.52, 1.37) 0.94 0.95 (0.85, 1.07)
All-cause mortality 1 (low) (n = 2,405) 2 (n = 2,406) 3 (high) (n = 2,405) P for trend  
All causes of mortality, % (n) 4.8 (116) 4.4 (106) 4.2 (101)   4.5 (323)
Multivariable model 1 1 (Ref.) 0.90 (0.69, 1.19) 0.79 (0.59, 1.06) 0.21 0.93 (0.87, 1.00)
Multivariable model 2 1 (Ref.) 0.90 (0.69, 1.18) 0.77 (0.58, 1.04) 0.18 0.93 (0.87, 1.00)
Multivariable model 3 1 (Ref.) 0.90 (0.69, 1.18) 0.78 (0.58, 1.05) 0.18 0.94 (0.87, 1.00)
  1. Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality by baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of total olive oil (g/day) and as a continuous variable (10 g/d). Results were presented as Hazard Ratios (95% CI). Multivariable model 1 was adjusted for age (years), sex and theintervention group. Model 2 was also adjusted for body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), smoking status (never, former, current smoker), alcohol intake (continuous, adding a quadratic term), educational level (illiterate/primary education, secondary education, academic/graduate), leisure time physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET)-minutes/d), prevalence of diabetes (yes/no), prevalence of hypertension (yes/no), prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (yes/no), use of antihypertensive medication (yes/no) and use of statins (yes/no). Model 3 was also adjusted for Mediterranean diet adherence (Modified 12-point Mediterranean Diet score). All models were stratified by recruitment center. Extremes of total energy intake were excluded. A major event was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke and death from cardiovascular causes.