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Table 4 Risk of cardiovascular events and mortality according to baseline common olive oil intake

From: Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study

  Energy-adjusted tertiles of common olive oil, g/day   
  1 (low) (n = 2,405) 2 (n = 2,406) 3 (high) (n = 2,405) P for trend Energy-adjusted common olive oil intake (10 g/d)
Mean common olive oil intake 12.1 ± 11.7 18.6 ± 18.5 21.7 ± 25.9   
Major event      
Cardiovascular event, % (n) 3.5 (85) 3.6 (86) 4.4 (106)   3.8 (277)
Multivariable model 1 1 (Ref.) 1.06 (0.78, 1.45) 1.20 (0.88, 1.62) 0.23 1.04 (0.99, 1.10)
Multivariable model 2 1 (Ref.) 1.01 (0.74, 1.38) 1.13 (0.83, 1.54) 0.35 1.04 (0.98, 1.10)
Multivariable model 3 1 (Ref.) 0.99 (0.73, 1.36) 1.11 (0.82, 1.51) 0.40 1.03 (0.98, 1.09)
Cardiovascular mortality 1 (low) (n = 2,405) 2 (n = 2,406) 3 (high) (n = 2,405) P for trend  
Cardiovascular mortality, % (n) 1.3 (31) 1.0 (24) 1.1 (26)   1.1 (81)
Multivariable model 1 1 (Ref.) 0.87 (0.50, 1.51) 0.84 (0.48, 1.46) 0.60 0.98 (0.88, 1.09)
Multivariable model 2 1 (Ref.) 0.84 (0.48, 1.47) 0.84 (0.48, 1.48) 0.65 0.98 (0.88, 1.09)
Multivariable model 3 1 (Ref.) 0.83 (0.47, 1.46) 0.81 (0.46, 1.43) 0.56 0.98 (0.87, 1.09)
Cancer mortality 1 (low) (n = 2,405) 2 (n = 2,406) 3 (high) (n = 2,405) P for trend  
Cancer mortality, % (n) 1.7 (40) 1.7 (42) 2.0 (48)   1.8 (130)
Multivariable model 1 1 (Ref.) 1.07 (0.68, 1.68) 1.16 (0.74, 1.82) 0.51 1.01 (0.92, 1.10)
Multivariable model 2 1 (Ref.) 1.04 (0.66, 1.64) 1.16 (0.74, 1.82) 0.49 1.01 (0.93, 1.10)
Multivariable model 3 1 (Ref.) 1.03 (0.65, 1.62) 1.14 (0.73, 1.79) 0.52 1.01 (0.92, 1.10)
All-cause mortality 1 (low) (n = 2,405) 2 (n = 2,406) 3 (high) (n = 2,405) P for trend  
All causes of mortality, % (n) 4.2 (101) 4.4 (106) 4.8 (116)   4.5 (323)
Multivariable model 1 1 (Ref.) 1.14 (0.86, 1.51) 1.17 (0.88, 1.51) 0.34 1.01 (0.96, 1.07)
Multivariable model 2 1 (Ref.) 1.10 (0.83, 1.47) 1.16 (0.87, 1.54) 0.37 1.01 (0.96, 1.07)
Multivariable model 3 1 (Ref.) 1.09 (0.82, 1.45) 1.14 (0.85, 1.51) 0.44 1.01 (0.96, 1.07)
  1. Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality by baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of common olive oil (g/day) and as a continuous variable (10 g/d). Results were presented as Hazard Ratios (95% CI). Multivariable model 1 was adjusted for age (years), sex and the intervention group. Model 2 was also adjusted for body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), smoking status (never, former, current smoker), alcohol intake (continuous, adding a quadratic term), educational level (illiterate/primary education, secondary education, academic/graduate), leisure time physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET)-minutes/d), prevalence of diabetes (yes/no), prevalence of hypertension (yes/no), prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (yes/no), use of antihypertensive medication (yes/no) and use of statins (yes/no). Model 3 was also adjusted for Mediterranean diet adherence (Modified 12-point Mediterranean Diet score). All models were stratified by recruitment center. Extremes of total energy intake were excluded. A major event was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke and death from cardiovascular causes.