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Table 1 Antibiotic prescribing in the United States, 2000 and 2010

From: Outpatient antibiotic prescribing in the United States: 2000 to 2010

Antibiotic prescription rates (per 1,000 persons)a 2000 2010 Risk ratio (95%CI)
Overall antibiotics    
United States population 379 386 1.02 (0.88 to 1.17)
Children and adolescents (<18) 506 416 0.82 (0.72 to 0.94)
 0 to 4 776 562 0.72 (0.65 to 0.81)
 5 to 17 405 358 0.88 (0.77 to 1.02)
Adults (18 to 64) 328 354 1.08 (0.93 to 1.26)
 18 to 49 317 329 1.04 (0.89 to 1.21)
 50 to 64 368 410 1.11 (0.97 to 1.28)
Older adults (≥65) 369 480 1.30 (1.14 to 1.49)
 65 to 79 405 473 1.17 (1.02 to 1.33)
 ≥80 254 498 1.96 (1.69 to 2.28)
Broad-spectrum antibiotics b    
United States population 223 471 2.11 (1.81 to 2.47)
Children and adolescents (<18) 223 400 1.79 (1.52 to 2.11)
 0 to 4 268 400 1.49 (1.28 to 1.74)
 5 to 17 191 400 2.09 (1.76 to 2.49)
Adults (18 to 64) 205 499 2.43 (2.07 to 2.86)
 18 to 49 194 499 2.57 (2.18 to 3.04)
 50 to 64 237 499 2.11 (1.80 to 2.46)
Older adults (≥65) 287 482 1.68 (1.45 to 1.94)
 65 to 79 293 489 1.67 (1.44 to 1.93)
 ≥80 260 466 1.79 (1.54 to 2.09)
Antibiotics for ARTIs c    
United States population 175 102 0.58 (0.46 to 0.74)
Children and adolescents (<18) 326 139 0.43 (0.35 to 0.52)
 0 to 4 268 138 0.51 (0.41 to 0.63)
 5 to 17 352 139 0.40 (0.33 to 0.48)
Adults (18 to 64) 151 94 0.62 (0.48 to 0.80)
 18 to 49 171 97 0.57 (0.44 to 0.73)
 50 to 64 104 87 0.83 (0.63 to 1.11)
Older adults (≥65) 74 69 0.94 (0.67 to 1.30)
 65 to 79 79 80 1.01 (0.74 to 1.37)
 ≥80 58 41 0.72 (0.58 to 1.07)
  1. aMEPS population estimates in 2000: 36,053,864 (0 to 17 years of age); 106,057,609 (0 to 64 years of age); 29,706,554 (>65 years and older). MEPS population estimates in 2010: 74,834,192 (0 to 17 years of age); 192,582,188 (0 to 64 years of age); 41,157,595 (>65 years and older); bbroad-spectrum antibiotics are defined per the National Committee for Quality Assurance which includes azithromycin, clarithromycin, fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and second- and third-generation cephalosporins; cARTIs include the following ICD-9-CM codes: bronchitis, 466 and 490; pharyngitis, 034, 462 and 463; sinusitis, 461 and 473; acute nasopharyngitis and upper respiratory tract infection, 460 and 465; and influenza, 480, 487 and 488. ARTIs, acute respiratory tract infections; MEPS, Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.