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Table 3 Associations of socioeconomic and demographic factors with past-year physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence

From: Socioeconomic disparities in intimate partner violence against Native American women: a cross-sectional study

Factor na % IPV+b Univariate PR (95% CI) Univariate OR (95% CI) p Adjusted ORc (95% CI) p
Participant's age        
   32+ 51 17.7 1.0 1.0 0.031 1.0 0.010
   ≤ 31 221 33.0 1.9 (1.0, 3.5) 2.3 (1.1, 5.0)   3.2 (1.3, 7.6)  
Relationship status        
   Married/boyfriend 201 22.4 1.0 1.0 0.001 1.0 <0.001
   Separated/divorced 72 51.4 2.3 (1.6, 3.2) 3.7 (2.1, 6.5)   3.9 (2.0, 7.5)  
Pregnant in past 12 months        
   No 112 31.3 1.0 1.0 0.715 ...  
   Yes 161 29.2 0.9 (0.6, 1.3) 0.9 (0.5, 1.5)    
No. in household        
   ≤ 5 208 26.4 1.0 1.0 0.013 1.0 0.014
   6+ 63 42.9 1.6 (1.1, 2.3) 2.1 (1.2, 3.8)   2.3 (1.2, 4.6)  
Home telephone        
   Yes 170 28.2 1.0 1.0 0.472 ...  
   No 102 32.4 1.1 (0.8, 1.7) 1.2 (0.7, 2.1)    
Partner's race/ethnicity        
   Whited 89 21.4 1.0 1.0 0.101 ...  
   Native Americand 112 33.0 1.5 (1.0, 2.5) 1.8 (1.0, 3.5)    
   African Americand 28 42.9 2.0 (1.1, 3.6) 2.8 (1.1, 6.8)    
   Hispanic 28 25.0 1.2 (0.6, 2.5) 1.2 (0.5, 3.3)    
Partner's educatione        
   ≥ High school graduate 178 20.2 1.0 1.0 <0.001 See socioeconomic index  
   < High school graduate 83 49.4 2.4 (1.7, 3.5) 3.9 (2.2, 6.8)    
Participant's educatione        
   ≥ High school graduate 191 27.8 1.0 1.0 0.242 ...  
   < High school graduate 68 35.3 1.3 (0.9, 1.9) 1.4 (0.8, 2.6)    
Partner's employment        
   Employed/FT studentf 212 25.9 1.0 1.0 0.038 ...  
   Unemployed 49 40.8 1.6 (1.0, 2.4) 2.0 (1.0, 3.8)    
Participant's employment        
   Employed/FT studentf 136 27.9 1.0 1.0 0.452 ...  
   Unemployed 137 32.1 1.1 (0.8, 1.7) 1.2 (0.7, 2.0)    
Received public assistanceg        
   No 155 20.7 1.0 1.0 <0.001 See socioeconomic index  
   Yes 118 42.4 2.1 (1.4, 3.0) 2.8 (1.7, 4.8)    
Poverty level        
   > 50% 181 26.0 1.0 1.0 0.022 See socioeconomic index  
   ≤ 50% 77 40.3 1.6 (1.1, 2.2) 1.9 (1.1, 3.4)    
Socioeconomic indexh        
   Reference 99 10.1 1.0 1.0 <0.001 1.0 <0.001
   Low 166 42.8 4.2 (2.3, 7.8) 6.7 (3.2, 13.7)   5.0 (2.4, 10.7)  
  1. IPV = Intimate partner violence; PR = prevalence ratio; OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; Ellipses (...) = not applicable; FT = full time. aNumber of women in each stratum. bPrevalence of past-year IPV within each stratum. cFinal logistic regression model included only those variables listed in column. dNon-Hispanic. eAmong persons aged 18 and older. fFT students had the lowest IPV rate of all employment strata but sample size was insufficient to analyze separately. gReceived food stamps and/or Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) or welfare in the past 12 months. Past-year IPV prevalence for women receiving TANF (43.3%) was nearly identical to women on food stamps (43.0%). hBased on three measures for which there were statistically significant two-way interactions (see Table 4): partner's education (< high school graduate (HSG) versus ≥ HSG), public assistance (yes versus no), and percent of federal poverty level (≤ 50% versus > 50%); women categorized as ≥ HSG, no public assistance, AND > 50% poverty comprised the reference group.