Comparison between actual and predicted CAC score distributions among a subset of the study population using three different modeling strategies. Actual prevalence measurements were from the 58- to 62-year-old non-smoking women in our study sample with hypertension, high cholesterol level, and no diabetes (n = 127). The "two-stage model predictions" use the coefficients presented in Tables 2 and 3 (the full model). The Ln(CAC+1) model predictions are from a linear regression model including all conventional CHD risk factors using Ln(CAC score +1) as a continuous outcome in a one-step modeling process (coefficients not presented). The Tobit model uses the cube-root of the CAC score as a continuous outcome for linear regression analysis, but assumes that scores at or below zero have been censored (coefficients not presented). P-values refer to a X2 test with 3 degrees of freedom comparing the expected frequencies based on each model with the observed frequencies. Lower p-values indicate a poorer model fit. CAC – Coronary artery calcium; CHD – Coronary heart disease; Ln – Natural logarithm.