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Table 1 Characteristics of studies reporting on the use of acetylcysteine for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

From: Acetylcysteine for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy after intravascular angiography: A systematic review and meta-analysis

First Author Patients Diabetes Elective Procedure Primary Outcome Acetylcysteine Protocol* Hydration Protocol Contrast Media Contrast Media Volume (mL)**
         NAC Control
Allaqaband, 2002 25 85 41 (48%) Unclear > 44.2 μmol/L increase SCr at 48 hrs 600 mg PO bid pre/post 0.45%NS 1 mL/kg/hr 12 hr pre/post Ioversol or Iodixanol 121.6 122
Baker, 2003 26 80 34 (43%) Unclear > 25% increase SCr at 48 or 96 hrs 150 mg/kg IV 30 min pre & 50 mg/kg IV infusion 4 hrs post Control 0.9%NS 1 mL/kg/hr 12 hr pre/post Iodixanol 238 222
Briguori, 2002 27 183 69 (38%) Yes > 25% increase SCr at 48 hrs or dialysis 600 mg PO bid pre/post 0.45%NS 1 mL/kg/hr 12 hr pre/post Iopromide 194 200
Diaz-Sandoval, 2002 28 54 21 (39%) Yes > 44.2 μmol/L or 25% SCr increase at 48 hrs 600 mg PO bid pre/post 0.45%NS 1 mL/kg/hr 2–12 hr pre & 12 hr post Ioxilan 179 189
Durham, 2002 29 79 38 (48%) No > 44.2 μmol/L increase SCr at 48 hrs 1200 mg PO 1 hr pre and 3 hr post 0.45%NS 1 mL/kg/hr 12 hr pre/post Iohexol 77.4 84.7
Efrati, 2003 30 49 26 (53%) Yes >25% increase SCr at 24 or 96 hrs 1000 mg PO bid day pre/post 0.45%NS 1 mL/kg/hr 12 hr pre/12 post Iopromide 142 138
Fung, 2004 31 91 48 (53%) Yes >44.2 μmol/L or 25% decrease in GFR 400 mg PO tid day prior/post 0.9%NS 100 ml/hr 12 hr pre/12 post Iopromide 135.8 121
Goldenberg, 2004 32 80 43 (54%) No >44.2 μmol/L 600 mg PO bid day prior/post 0.45%NS 1 mL/kg/hr 12 hr pre/12 post Iopamidol 111 138
Kay, 2003 33 200 75 (38%) Yes > 25% increase SCr at 48 hrs 600 mg PO bid × 4 (3 pre) 0.9%NS 1 mL/kg/hr 12 hr pre & 6 hr post Iopamidol 130 120
Kefer, 2003 34 104 13 (13%) Unclear > 44.2 μmol/L increase SCr at 24 hrs 1200 mg IV 12 hr pre & immediately post D5W 20 mL/hr 12 hr pre & 24 hr post Iopromide or Iohexol NR NR
MacNeill, 2003 35 43 20 (46%) Yes > 25% increase SCr at 72 hrs 600 mg PO × 5 (2 pre) Inpatient: 0.45%NS 1 mL/kg/hr 12 hr pre Outpatient: 0.45%NS 2 mL/kg/hr 4 hr pre & both 12 hr post Iopromide or Ioxilan 103 116
Oldemeyer, 2003 36 96 43 (45%) Yes > 44.2 μmol/L or 25% SCr increase at 48 hrs 1500 mg bid × 4 (1 pre) 0.45%NS 1 mL/kg/hr 12 hr pre/post Iopamidol 134 127
Shyu, 2002 37 121 77 (64%) Yes > 44.2 μmol/L increase SCr at 48 hrs 400 mg PO bid pre/post 0.45%NS 1 mL/kg/hr 12 hr pre/post Iopamidol 119 115
Vallero, 2002 38 100 23 (23%) Unclear > 44.2 μmol/L or 33% increase SCr at 48 hrs 600 mg PO bid pre/post 0.45%NS 1 mL/kg/hr 1–2 hr pre & 24 hr post Iodixanol 187.8 219
  1. Legend: NR = not recorded or available; NAC=acetycysteine; SCr=serum creatinine (for conversion to mg/dL divide by 88.4). *NAC administered with hydration protocol. **Data presented as means.