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Table 3 Changes in mental health outcomes between T1 and T4 in each pregnancy termination group. Cohen's d estimates the changes in outcome variables in the two pregnancy termination groups. Within-group analysis was performed using paired t-tests and between-group analysis was performed using ANCOVA (estimated with controls for all four possible confounders, i.e. marital status, number of children, vocational activity and former psychiatric health).

From: The course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: a longitudinal, five-year follow-up study

Outcome at corresponding interviews: Change in the miscarriage group from T1 to T4: Cohen's d Change in the induced abortion group from T1 to T4: Cohen's d Differential change between groups from T1–T4: Exact p-value
IES intrusion 1.92*** 0.85*** p = 0.096
IES avoidance 1.20*** 0.21** p = 0.003
Quality of life -0.69*** -0.40** p = 0.628
HADS anxiety 0.10 0.02 p = 0.999
HADS depression 0.80** 0.30* p = 0.314
Feelings, rated 1–5:    
Relief -0.50 0.07 p = 0.081
Grief 1.54*** 0.41*** p = 0.015
Loss 1.22*** 0.08 p = 0.007
Guilt 0.93*** 0.00 p < 0.001
Shame 0.47 0.17 p = 0.088
Anger 0.86*** 0.34** p = 0.027
  1. T1 = 10 days after pregnancy termination
  2. T4 = five years after pregnancy termination
  3. Significant change from T1 to T4 (in each pregnancy termination group) by paired t-test: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.