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Table 4 Univariate Cox regression, hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval (n = 759)

From: Timing and risk factors for clinical fractures among postmenopausal women: a 5-year prospective study

Variable Hazard ratio 95% CI
BMD ≤ 0.95 g/cm2 1.8 1.2–2.8
   Osteoporosis* 1.5 0.9–2.3
   Osteopenia* 1.3 0.9–2.0
   Low BMD* 1.9 1.2–3.1
Age > 60 years 1.7 1.1–2.6
Weight ≤ 70 kg 1.2 0.8–1.8
Height >160 cm 1.0 0.6–1.5
BMI ≤ 27 kg/m2 1.1 0.8–1.7
Fertility years ≤ 35 years 1.0 0.7–1.6
Pregnancies > 3 1.4 0.9–2.1
Calcium intake ≤ 900 mg 1.3 0.9–2.0
Fracture history after menopause 5.2 3.4–7.7
Use of birth control pill > 5 years 1.2 0.7–1.9
Use of hormones >5 years 3.3 0.8–13.6
Ovariectomy 1.1 0.7–1.9
Hysterectomy 1.1 0.7–1.7
Menopause below the age of 45 1.2 0.8–1.8
Perimenopausal complaints 1.4 0.9–2.3
Family history of osteoporosis 1.2 0.7–2.1
Coffee intake ≥ 5 per day 1.3 0.9–1.9
Alcohol intake ≥ 5 per week 1.0 0.6–1.8
Smoking (past)† 1.6 1.0–2.4
Smoking (present)† 1.7 1.0–2.8
Sports (past)† 1.0 0.6–1.4
Sports (present)† 1.0 0.6–1.5
Occupational exercise in the past   
   Mild 0.3 0.0–2.1
   Moderate 0.8 0.5–1.4
   High Reference Reference
  1. BMD, bone mineral density; BMI, body mass index.
  2. *Osteoporosis = T <-2.5; osteopenia = T >-2.5 and T < -1.0; low BMD = T <-1.0.
  3. †Smoking past and present, and sports past and present were dichotomised as yes/no.