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Table 2 Data on contribution of uncorrected refractive error to blindness and less severe visual impairment in qualifying surveys.

From: What is the global burden of visual impairment?

GBD sub-region Country Year of publica-tion of study [Ref] Number of participants in survey Partici-pation rate of those sampled (%) Age group (years) Blindness* rate (%) Percent of blindness due to un-corrected refractive error Less severe visual impairment† rate (%) Percent of less severe visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error Types of refractive error causing visual impairment‡
AFRO E Ethiopia 1997 [10] 7423 90 All ages 0.85 8.0 1.68 28.8 Unspecified refractive error, aphakia
EMRO B Lebanon 1997 [11] 10148 90 All ages 0.60 12.6 3.90 50.0 Myopia, hyperopia, aphakia
EURO B1 Turkey 1996 [12] 7497 87 All ages 0.40 12.0 1.50 29.0 Unspecified refractive error, aphakia
SEARO B Malaysia 2002 [13] 18027 69 All ages 0.29 10.4 2.44 56.1 Unspecified refractive error, aphakia
SEARO D India 2001 [14]
2002 [15]
10293 87 All ages 1.34 14.9 8.59 45.0 Myopia, hyperopia, aphakia, pseudo-phakia, refractive error related amblyopia
SEARO D Pakistan§ 1998 [16] 1156 90 All ages 2.08 16.7 6.92 55.0 Unspecified refractive error
SEARO D Pakistan 2005 [17] 1106 94 40 or more 1.90 14.3 8.05 29.2 Unspecified refractive error, aphakia
WPRO A Australia 2001 [18] 4744 86 40 or more 0.16 0.0 1.56 37.6 Myopia, hyperopia
WPRO B1 China 1999 [19] 5342 83 50 or more 2.67 12.4 NA NA Unspecified refractive error
  1. *Blindness defined as presenting visual acuity less than 3/60; these studies, with two exceptions, did not include visual field loss criteria for blindness.
  2. †Less severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity less than 6/18 to 3/60.
  3. ‡Visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity less than 6/18, which includes both blindness and less severe visual impairment.
  4. §This study was on Afghan refugees in Pakistan; this would reflect more the visual impairment in Afghanistan, which is also in the SEARO D sub-region according to the GBD classification.
  5. NA stands for not available.