Geographic locations. (A) Geographic location of endemic area for onchocerciasis in Ecuador. The endemic focus is located in the Northern coastal area of Ecuador adjacent to Colombia. There are a total of 119 endemic communities for onchocerciasis located in Esmeraldas Province (117 communities) and Pichincha Province (two communities). The endemic area consists of hyperendemic (red circles), mesoendemic (yellow squares), and hypoendemic (green triangles) communities. There are six satellite foci (Tuluví, Verde, Viche, Canandé, Sucio and Santo Domingo de Los Colorados). The areas in green represent the foci of onchocerciasis. (B) Geographic location of the seven sentinel communities in the District of Eloy Alfaro in Esmeraldas Province. Hyperendemic (red circles), and mesoendemic (yellow square) sentinel communities are shown. The areas in green represent the foci of onchocerciasis.