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Table 3 Mean (± SD) baseline and changes at endpoint in PANSS total, positive, negative, and anxiety/depression scores in the three groups of patients.

From: Assessment of strategies for switching patients from olanzapine to risperidone: A randomized, open-label, rater-blinded study

PANSS Abrupt (n= 29) Gradual 1 (n= 34) Gradual 2 (n= 31) All Groups (n= 94) Between-treatment p-valuea
Total      
   Baseline 74.6 (± 10.6) 76.0 (± 12.3) 76.2 (± 11.6) 75.6 (± 11.5)  
   Change -7.5 (± 14.4)† -4.9 (± 17.1) -9.8 (± 15.1)‡ -7.3 (± 15.6)‡ 0.1497
Positive      
   Baseline 21.7 (± 4.2) 23.1 (± 5.2) 21.1 (± 5.5) 22.0 (± 5.1)  
   Change -3.4 (± 4.6)‡ -2.6 (± 6.4)* -3.0 (± 4.9)† -3.0 (± 5.4)‡ 0.2009
Negative      
   Baseline 17.9 (± 4.8) 18.1 (± 5.2) 19.5 (± 5.7) 18.5 (± 5.2)  
   Change -0.7 (± 6.0) 0.2 (± 6.2) -2.2 (± 5.8)* -0.9 (± 6.1) 0.2904
Anxiety/depression      
   Baseline 11.1 (± 3.4) 10.3 (± 3.6) 10.9 (± 3.4) 10.7 (± 3.5)  
   Change -1.6 (± 3.6)* -0.5 (± 3.6) -2.2 (± 3.9)† -1.4 (± 3.7)‡ 0.618
  1. aFrom an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model with treatment, site, and baseline value as factors.
  2. *p < 0.05, †p < 0.01, ‡p < 0.001 versus baseline (paired t-test).