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Table 4 Reduction in biopsies/cancers detected, as compared with the current study, using as a threshold for biopsy a 20% or higher probability of cancer

From: A panel of kallikrein markers can reduce unnecessary biopsy for prostate cancer: data from the European Randomized Study of Prostate Cancer Screening in Göteborg, Sweden

  Number of biopsies Number of cancers Number of high-grade cancers
  Performed Reduced (%) Caught Missed (%) Caught Missed (%)
Biopsy all 740 n/a 192 n/a 40 n/a
Laboratory model       
   Base 489 251 (34%) 153 39 (20%) 38 2 (5%)
   Base+free PSA 380 360 (49%) 152 40 (21%) 36 4 (10%)
   Full 316 424 (57%) 161 31 (16%) 37 3 (8%)
Clinical model       
   Base 344 396 (54%) 136 56 (29%) 37 3 (8%)
   Base+free PSA 336 404 (55%) 147 45 (23%) 38 2 (5%)
   Full 297 443 (60%) 159 33 (17%) 39 1 (3%)
  1. The base model for the laboratory model includes age and total prostate specific antigen (PSA), and for the clinical model includes age, total PSA, and digital rectal examination result. The full model includes the base model plus free PSA, intact PSA, and human kallikrein 2. Cancers with biopsy Gleason score 7 and higher were considered high grade. Percentages given in parentheses represent the percentage as compared with the current study.