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Table 1 Relative risks1 of four different categories of alcohol consumption on disease incidence and all-cause mortality, both for men (upper row) and women (lower row)

From: The cost-effectiveness of increasing alcohol taxes: a modelling study

  Abstinence Moderate2 Excessive2 Dangerous2
Coronary heart disease 1 0.82 0.84 0.88
  1 0.82 0.84 0.88
Stroke 1 0.60 0.92 1.79
  1 0.58 0.48 7.96
Oesophageal cancer 1 1.80 2.37 4.26
  1 1.80 2.37 4.26
Breast cancer 1 1 1 1
  1 1.09 1.31 1.68
Laryngeal cancer 1 1.83 3.90 4.93
  1 1.83 3.90 4.93
Oral cavity cancer 1 1.45 1.85 5.39
  1 1.45 1.85 5.39
All-cause mortality 1 0.91 1.15 1.35
  1 0.96 1.35 1.49
  1. 1For 95% confidence intervals for all relative risks, see Holman et al [18].
  2. 2Definitions of alcohol consumption categories:
  3. moderate: fewer than two standard drinks (< 20 g) per day for women, and fewer than four standard drinks (< 40 g) per day for men;
  4. excessive: 2–4 standard drinks (20–40 g) per day for women, and 4–6 standard drinks (40–60 g) per day for men;
  5. dangerous: more than four standard drinks (> 40 g) per day for women, and more than six standard drinks (> 60 g) per day for men.