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Table 2 Univariate associations between molecular markers and advanced prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis. Advanced cancer was defined as skeletal metastases or clinical stage ≥ T3. Predictive accuracy of each marker is given as AUC. To facilitate comparisons between markers, the odds ratios are for an increase of one-quarter of a standard deviation.

From: Prostate-specific antigen at or before age 50 as a predictor of advanced prostate cancer diagnosed up to 25 years later: A case-control study

Marker Odds ratio 95% CI AUC
Total PSA 3.19 2.38, 4.27 0.791
Free PSA 3.06 2.30, 4.08 0.776
Complexed PSA 3.11 2.33, 4.16 0.793
Percent free to total PSA 0.85 0.80, 0.90 0.641
Human kallikrein 2 1.25 1.13, 1.38 0.604