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Table 2 Details of outbreaks.

From: Patient to patient transmission of hepatitis B virus: a systematic review of reports on outbreaks between 1992 and 2007

    Median value
(range)
  Median value (range)   Median value (range)  
Outbreak characteristics   Number of outbreaks Duration of outbreaks (months) p Cases
(number)
p Fatality rate
(%)
p
Location EU 16 11 (1–145) 0.3849a 5 (1–86) 0.4815a 0
(0–100)
0.4705a
  USA 17 5 (2–40)   9 (1–38)   0
(0–16.7)
 
Clinical condition Neoplasia 4 10 (3–25) 0.5059a 6 (2–11) 0.4391a 40.9
(0–100)
0.0215 a
  Other 29 5(1–145)   8 (1–86)   0
(0–40.0)
 
Transmission pathways Multi-vials 10 3.5 (1–14)   6.5 (2–29)   0
(0–81.8)
 
  Capillary blood sampling. 9 9 (2–16)   11 (3–27)   0
(0–40.0)
 
  Standard 3 24 (4–40)   31 (14–38)   0(-)  
  Transvenous biopsy 3 124 (54–145) 0.0303 b 63 (20–86) 0.0012 b 0(-) 0.6384b
  Blood product 2 13.5 (2–25)   3 (1–5)   0(-)  
  Undefined 6 4.5 (2–17)   2.5 (1–6)   0
(0–100)
 
Setting Dialysis 10 3.5 (2–17)   4 (1–14)   0 (-)  
  Others 23 9 (1–145) 0.0248 a 11 (1–86) 0.0240 a 0
(0–100)
0.1165a
  Total 33 6 (1–145) - 7 (1–86) - 0(0–100) -
  1. aMann-Whitney U test.
  2. bKruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks.
  3. † Multiple deficiencies in standard precautions; standard precautions as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [10].