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Table 1 Frequency of clinical features in cases and controls.

From: The risk of colorectal cancer with symptoms at different ages and between the sexes: a case-control study

  Cases
(N= 5477)
Controls
(N= 38,314)
Positive likelihood ratio (95% CI)
Clinical feature Number with this feature Percentage with this feature Number with this feature Percentage with this feature  
Symptoms      
Constipation 1477 27.0 4051 10.6 2.6 (2.4 to 2.7)
Diarrhoea 988 18.0 2171 5.7 3.2 (3.0 to 3.4)
Change in bowel habit 615 11.2 375 1.0 5.5 (5.2 to 5.8)
Rectal bleeding 853 15.6 460 1.2 6.0 (5.7 to 6.3)
Weight loss      
   5.0–9.9% 210 3.8 852 2.2 1.6 (1.4 to 1.8)
   ≥ 10% 351 6.4 678 1.8 2.9 (2.6 to 3.1)
Abdominal pain 1629 29.7 3121 8.1 3.5 (3.3 to 3.7)
Investigations      
Haemoglobin < 12.0 g/dl 1424 26.0 1803 4.7 4.4 (4.2 to 4.6)
Mean red cell volume < 80 fl 363 6.6 923 2.4 2.8 (2.4 to 3.1)
Diagnoses and risk factors      
Irritable bowel syndrome 135 2.5 325 0.8 2.4 (2.1 to 2.8)
Diabetes 626 11.4 3679 9.6 1.2 (1.1 to 1.3)
Obesity 510 9.3 3510 9.2 1.0 (0.93 to 1.1)
  1. Note: the positive likelihood ratio is the likelihood of having a feature when one is a case, divided by the likelihood of having the feature when one is a control.