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Table 1 Comparison of baseline characteristics of the children by groups.

From: Zinc and copper supplementation in acute diarrhea in children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

  Placebo (N = 271) Zinc (N = 264) Zinc+Copper (N = 273)
Age [months, mean (SD)] 18.01 (11) 17.78 (11.6) 17.80 (10.8)
Age categories [N , (%)]    
≤ 12 months 102 (37.6) 119 (45.1) 111 (40.7)
13 to 24 months 119 (43.9) 93 (35.2) 105 (38.5)
> 24 months 50 (18.5) 52 (19.7) 57 (20.9)
Male gender [N , (%)] 168 (62) 149 (56.4) 160 (58.6)
Mean number of children in family under 5 years 1.61 (0.8) 1.73 (0.8) 1.72 (0.8)
Mother's education [schooling years, mean (SD)] 6.72 (4.3) 7.46 (4.1) 6.70 (4.3)
Immunization complete to date [N , (%)] 178 (65.7) 190 (72) 181 (66.3)
Any breastfeeding [N , (%)] 161 (59.1) 142 (53.8) 150 (55)
Duration of illness (hours) 39.41 (22.2) 42.57 (26.9) 42.98 (27.7)
Duration of diarrhea (hours) 35.03 (20.5) 35.80 (20.6) 35.28 (20.3)
Duration of vomiting (hours) 20.92 (21) 20.19 (21.4) 19.93 (19.9)
Duration of fever (hours) 23.96 (24.2) 25.39 (26.3) 24.75 (29)
Dehydration status [N , (%)]    
None 200 (73.8) 202 (76.5) 232 (85)
Some 67 (24.7) 57 (21.6) 32 (11.7)
Severe 4 (1.5) 5 (1.9) 9 (3.3)
Dysentery [N , (%)] 19 (7.0) 27 (10.0) 32 (11.7)
Received ORS [N , (%)] 122 (45.0) 129 (48.9) 104 (38.1)
Received any other medications [N , (%)] 127 (46.9) 122 (46.2) 116 (42.4)
Weight-for-age Z -score [mean (SD)] -2.14 (1.2) -2.07 (1.2) -2.17 (1.2)
Weight-for-age Z -score < -2 [N , (%)] 148 (54.6) 133 (50.4) 142 (52)
Weight-for-height Z -score < -2 [N , (%)] 145 (53.5) 138 (52.3) 148 (54.2)
Height-for-age Z -score < -2 [N , (%)] 91 (33.6) 78 (29.6) 96 (35.2)
Household wealth index [mean (SD)] 0.01 (1.1) 0.07 (1) --0.08 (0.9)
Water safety score [mean (SD)] 1.78 (0.9) 1.74 (0.9) 1.90 (1)
Hand washing score [mean (SD)] 1.24 (1) 1.20 (1) 1.25 (1.1)
Serum zinc [μg/dl, mean (SD)] 76.1 (30.2) 71.4 (37.9) 66.1 (28.2)
Serum zinc ≤ 60 μg/dl [N , (%)] 86 (31.7) 116 (43.9) 135 (49.5)
Serum Copper [μg/dl, mean (SD)] 122.4 (34.4) 124.3 (39.7) 123.9 (34.8)
Hemoglobin % [g/dl, mean (SD)] 9.60 (1.9) 9.89 (1.7) 9.55 (1.9)