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Table 3 Study outcomes by intervention.

From: Zinc and copper supplementation in acute diarrhea in children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

Outcome variable Intervention Mean ± sd Difference (95%CI)* Adjusted Difference (95%CI)**
Stool weight (g)     
  Placebo 876.9 ± 1194.1   
  Zn 972.3 ± 920.2 95.4 (-85.4,276.2) 21.1 (-40.8,83)
  Zn+Cu 972.3 ± 1210 94.5 (-86.7,275.7) 23.8 (-35.5,83.1)
Duration of diarrhea (hours)a from enrollment     
  Placebo 62.2 ± 33.5   
  Zn 64.4 ± 37.8 2.2 (-4.1,8.5) 1.9 (-2.23,2.55)
  Zn+Cu 64.4 ± 35 2.2 (-3.8,8.2) -0.9 (-2.37,2.2)
Amount of ORS used in hospital (ml)     
  Placebo 1666.5 ± 1372.7   
  Zn 1837.1 ± 1719.4 170.6 (-93.3,434.5) 42.8 (-45.6,131.2)
  Zn+Cu 1811.9 ± 1499 145.4 (-96.7,387.5) 67.2 (-17.5,152.1)
Amount of IV fluids used in hospital (ml)     
  Placebo 127.3 ± 412.9   
  Zn 127.9 ± 358.2 0.7 (-65,66.4) 4.1 (-16,24.1)
  Zn+Cu 131.7 ± 428 4.5 (-66.4,73.3) -1.2 (-20.7,18.3)
14th day zinc levels (μg/dL)     
  Pl 76.3 ± 32.9   
  Zn 76.6 ± 35. 0.3 (-5.8, 6.4) -1.1 (-3,0.9)
  Zn+Cu 74.3 ± 40 -2 (-8.5, 4.6) -2.3 (-4.1,-0.5)
14th day copper levels (μg/dL)     
  Pl 115.2 ± 30.8   
  Zn 121.2 ± 35. 6.0 (0.1,11.9) 1.7 (-0.4,3.7)
  Zn+Cu 124.6 ± 36.8 9.4 (3.4,15.5) 2.4 (0.5,4.3)
Mean absolute difference from baseline in Znc     
  Placebo 7.2 ± 379.6   
  Zn 59.2 ± 428.5 52 (-20.7,124.7) 34.8 (-11.7,81.2)
  Zn+Cu 81.8 ± 452.8 74.5 (-0.11,149) 71.4 (30.9,111.9)
Mean absolute difference from baseline in Cud     
  Placebo -79.4 ± 429.2   
  Zinc -41.2 ± 418.8 38.2 (-37.8,114.3) 14 (-1.5,9.5)
  Zn+Cu 15.6 ± 439.8 95 (39.3,17.7) 19.6 (3.6,35.6)
   N (%) Odds ratio(95%CI) Adjusted odds ratio(95%CI)
Proportion with diarrhea of > 7 days from onsetb     
  Placebo 13(5.3)   
  Zn 20(8.1) 1.6 (0.77,3.25) 1.8 (0.78,3.97)
  Zn+Cu 15(5.8) 1.11 (0.52,2.38) 1.18 (0.51,2.73)
   N (%) IRR (95%CI)$ Adjusted IRR (95%CI)
Rates of complications in hospital     
  Placebo 14 (5.2)   
  Zn 10 (3.7) 0.73 (0.33,1.65) 0.76 (0.32,1.84)e
  Zn+Cu 8 (2.9) 0.57 (0.24,1.35) 0.68 (0.26,1.78)
More than three episodes of some dehydration in hospital     
  Placebo 6 (2.2)   
  Zn 2 (0.8) 0.34 (0.07,1.7)e 0.35 (0.07,1.77)
  Zn+Cu 5 (1.8) 0.83 (0.25,2.71) 0.94 (0.27,3.34)
Severe dehydration experience in hospital     
  Placebo 12 (4.4)   
  Zn 6 (2.3) 0.51 (0.19,1.37) 0.55 (0.21,1.49)
  Zn+Cu 8 (2.9) 0.66 (0.27,1.62) 0.77 (0.31,1.94)
  1. * The difference is as compared with the placebo group.
  2. **Adjusted for following covariates: age, gender, prior duration of diarrhea, weight-for-age Z -score at most -2, dehydration status, receipt of medication, water safety, wealth index, type of stool, baseline serum zinc and serum copper.
  3. $ Incidence rate ratios on Poisson regression. Beneficial effect is < 1.
  4. aCensored duration of diarrhea: 16 in Zinc, 14 in Zinc/Copper treatment,24 in Placebo.
  5. bCensored proportion with diarrhea > 7 days from onset: 16 in Zinc treatment, 14 in Zinc/Copper treatment, 24 in Placebo.
  6. c Censored 14th day serum Zinc: 32 in Zinc treatment, 19 in Zinc/Copper treatment,21 in Placebo.
  7. dCensored 14th day serum copper: 32 in Zinc treatment, 19 in Zinc/Copper treatment,21 in Placebo.