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Table 1 Trace element concentrations independent of sample source

From: Trace elements in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Element Number
of
cohortsb
Number of
hemodialysis
participants
and control
participants
Pooleda
SMD
I2,
%
Range of
SMDs
Number of
studies
significantly
favouring
lower
concentrations
in hemodialysis
participants
Number of
studies
significantly
favouring lower
concentrations
in control
participants
Number of
studies with
non-significant
findings
Arsenic 3 110/54 - 96 (-1.23, 1.77) 1 1 1
Boron 4 69/494 - 96 (-5.21, 2.96) 1 1 2
Cadmium 6 722/968 2.07 98 (-1.01, 7.7) 1 5c 0
Chromium 11 330/635 0.84 95 (-0.66, 5.14) 0 6c 5
Cobalt 1 7/9 - - - 0 0 1
Copper 42 1712/1444 0.52 93 (-1.74, 5.28) 6 16c 20
Fluorine 1 7/8 - - - 0 1 0
Lead 14 1217/1751 0.11 96 (-2.89, 1.73) 4 5c 5
Manganese 8 399/522 -0.7 96 (-3.96, 0.29) 4c 0 4
Mercury 2 607/264 - 99 (-0.94, 0.49) 1 1 0
Molybdenum 1 14/59 - - - 0 1 0
Nickel 9 369/323 - 99 (-3.96, 4.67) 3 6 0
Selenium 46 1496/1443 -1.50 91 (-9.16, 1.97) 37c 1 8
Vanadium 5 112/137 3.07 87 (1.18, 6.28) 0 5c 0
Zinc 74 2515/2699 -1.61 95 (-8.99, 3.24) 56c 5 13
  1. aPooled SMDs using the random-effects method; this estimate indicates the average effect of all included studies. Negative values indicate lower concentrations in the hemodialysis participants and positive values indicate lower concentrations in the control participants. Pooled SMDs are reported only when vote counting results are significant.
  2. bSome studies counted more than once if results reported by strata, for example, women and men separately.
  3. cVote counting sign test results were significant at the P ≤ 0.05 level. Applied to comparisons with a minimum of three studies.
  4. SMD = standardized mean difference.