Smokeless tobacco and bladder cancer by region (smoking-adjusted data). The 10 individual smoking-adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimates, separated by region, are shown numerically and also graphically on a logarithmic scale. They are sorted in order of year of publication within study type (cohort, case-control). In the graphical representation individual RR estimates are indicated by a solid square, with the area of the square proportional to the weight (inverse-variance) of the estimate. Also shown are the combined estimates, for the subgroups and overall, derived by random-effects meta-analysis. These are represented by a diamond of standard height, with the width indicating the 95% CI. See Table 19 for further details relating to the estimates, and Table 20 for fuller details of the meta-analyses.