Skip to main content


Figure 2 | BMC Medicine

Figure 2

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

Figure 2

Smokeless tobacco and oropharyngeal cancer by study type and period of publication (smoking-adjusted data). The 19 individual smoking-adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimates separated by study type, and for case-control studies by period of publication, are shown numerically and also graphically on a logarithmic scale. They are sorted in order of year of publication. In the graphical representation individual RR estimates are indicated by a solid square, with the area of the square proportional to the weight (inverse-variance) of the estimate. Also shown are the combined estimates, for the subgroups and overall, derived by random-effects meta-analysis. These are represented by a diamond of standard height, with the width indicating the 95% CI. See Table 3 for further details relating to the estimates, and Table 4 for fuller details of the meta-analyses.

Back to article page