Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Figure 9 | BMC Medicine

Figure 9

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

Figure 9

Smokeless tobacco and prostate cancer (USA overall data). The five individual relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimates, all for the USA, are shown numerically and also graphically on a logarithmic scale. They are sorted in order of year of publication within study type (cohort, case-control). In the graphical representation individual RR estimates are indicated by a solid square, with the area of the square proportional to the weight (inverse-variance) of the estimate. Also shown are the combined estimates, for the subgroups and overall, derived by random-effects meta-analysis. These are represented by a diamond of standard height, with the width indicating the 95% CI. See Table 17 for further details relating to the estimates, and Table 18 for fuller details of the meta-analyses.

Back to article page