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Table 1 Cohort studies of smokeless tobacco and cancer

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

Study Country Follow-up period Baseline population Exposurea Referenceb Cancers studied (cases)c
Lutheran Brotherhood cohortd USA 1966 to 1986 17,633 white men aged 35+ years ST Hsing et al. 1990 [11] Prostate (149)
      Kneller et al. 1991 [12] Stomach (75)
      Zheng et al. 1993 [13] Pancreas (57)
US Veterans cohorte USA 1954/57 to 1980 248,046 US veterans aged 31–84 years, over 99.5% men ST Hsing et al. 1991 [15] Prostate (4,607)
      Heineman et al. 1992 [16] Multiple myeloma (582)f
      Zahm et al. 1992 [17] Soft tissue sarcoma (119), pharynx (55), buccal cavity (74)
      Heineman et al. 1995 [18] Colon (3,812), rectum (1,100)
Iowa cohort USA 1986/89 to 1995 1,572 men aged 40+ years, controls in a case-control study ST Putnam et al. 2000 [20] Prostate (101)f
NHANES I follow-up cohortg USA 1971/75 to 2002 14,407 adults aged 25–74 yearsh ST Accort et al. 2002 [21] All, lungi
      Accort et al. 2005 [22] All, lung, breast, digestive, oral, prostatef, i
CPS-Ij USA 1959 to 1972 77,407 never smoking men aged 30+ years from 25 states ST Henley et al. 2005 [23] All (2,332), oral (13), digestive (913), lung (134), genitourinary (559)
CPS-IIk USA 1982 to 2000 114,809 never smoking men aged 30+ years nationwide STl Henley et al. 2005 [23] All (6,140), oral (46), digestive (1,999), lung (400), genitourinary (1,709), haematopoietic (923)
   1982 to 1996 467,788 men aged 30+ years nationwide ST Chao et al. 2002 [24] Stomach (996)
Norway cohortsm Norway 1966 to 2001 10,136 men from two cohorts, a sample of the 1960 census and relatives of Norwegian migrants to the USA Snuff Boffetta et al. 2005 [26] Oral (34), oesophagus (27), stomach (217), pancreas (105), lung (343), kidney (88), bladder (239)n
Swedish construction workers Sweden 1974 to 1985 135,036 men Snuff Bolinder et al. 1994 [28] All (1,269), lung (204)
   1971 to 2000 337,311 men   Odenbro et al. 2005 [29] Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (756)f
   1971 to 2000 335,612 adults, over 99.3% men   Fernberg et al. 2006 [30] Malignant lymphoma (1,514)f
   1971 to 2004 336,381 men   Fernberg et al. 2007 [31] Leukaemia (372), multiple myeloma (520)f
   1978 to 2004 279,897 men   Luo et al. 2007 [32] Oral (248), lung (2,198), pancreas (448)f
   1971 to 2004 339,802 men   Odenbro et al. 2007 [33] Melanoma (1,639)°
   1971 to 2004 336,381 men   Zendehdel et al. 2008 [34] Stomach (1,385), oesophagus (366)f
Uppsala County cohort Sweden 1973/74 to 2002 9,976 men Snuff Roosaar et al. 2008 [35] All (1,572), smoking-related (493), oral (34)p
  1. a Only exposures for which results are available are shown.
  2. b Main references. Other references supplying limited data are indicated in footnotes.
  3. c Numbers of cases are totals for the sexes specified. Numbers of cases exposed to ST are shown in the tables presenting results by site. Cases are deaths, unless indicated. Oral is used as an abbreviation for oropharnyx.
  4. d Some limited additional results for the Lutheran Brotherhood cohort, based on follow-up to 1981, were reported earlier for cancers of the prostate, pancreas and oesophagus in IARC Monograph 37 in 1985 [14].
  5. e Some limited additional results for the US Veterans cohort, based on follow-up from 1954 to 1969 were presented earlier for a range of cancers in an abstract by Winn et al. in 1982 [19].
  6. f Cancers listed are incident cases.
  7. g NHANES I = First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
  8. h Data on ST use were only collected in 3,847 subjects at baseline in 1971–1975, but were collected for all subjects in follow-up surveys in 1982–1984. 6,805 subjects were considered in the mortality analyses [21] and 7,779 in the incidence analyses [22].
  9. i Numbers of cases not given.
  10. j CPS-I = Cancer Prevention Study I.
  11. k CPS-II = Cancer Prevention Study II. Some additional results for lung cancer, based on mortality to 2002, comparing 111,952 men who quit cigarette smoking with 4,443 who switched to ST, were presented by Henley et al. in 2007 [25].
  12. l Results for chewing and snuff are also given for all cancers and lung cancers.
  13. m Some limited additional results, based on follow-up to 1978, were reported by Heuch et al. in 1983 [27] for pancreatic cancer incidence and in IARC Monograph 37 in 1985 [14] for cancers of the buccal cavity/pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas and prostate.
  14. n Cancers listed include incident cases.
  15. ° Includes cutaneous malignant melanoma, melanoma in situ and intraocular malignant melanoma.
  16. p Numbers are incident cases. An analysis of overall cancer based on 1,574 deaths was also conducted.
  17. ST = smokeless tobacco.