Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 11 Other cancers of the digestive system; individual effect (relative risk/odds ratio) estimates

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  ST use    RR/OR
Sourcea Typeb Exposurec Smoking Sexd Id. Casese Estimate (95%CI)d Adjustment factorsf
Cohort studies         
US Veterans: Heineman et al. 1995 [18]         
- colon cancer ST Ever Never Mg 1 39 1.20 (0.90–1.70)h age, sed, ses, time, yriv
- rectal cancer    Never   2 17 1.90 (1.20–3.10)h  
US Veterans: Winn et al. 1982 [19]         
- liver cancer ST Ever Never Mg 3 NA 2.81 (NA) age
NHANES I: Accortt et al. 2005 [22]         
- digestive cancer ST Ever Never M 4 13 0.80 (0.40–1.80) age, pov, race
     F 5 4 0.80 (0.30–2.40)  
CPS-I: Henley et al. 2005 [23]         
- digestive cancer ST Current Never M 6 153 1.26 (1.05–1.52) age, alc, asp, bmi, diet, edu, exer, occ, race
CPS-II: Henley et al. 2005 [23]         
- digestive cancer ST Current Never M 7 48 1.04 (0.77–1.38) age, alc, asp, bmi, diet, edu, exer, occ, race
   Former    8 19 0.99 (0.63–1.57)  
   Ever    9 67 1.03 (0.80–1.31)h  
Case-control studies         
Bjelke 1974 [52] USA         
- colorectal cancer Chew Use Any NA 10 NA No association NA
Bjelke 1974 [52] Norway         
- colorectal cancer Chew Use Any NA 11 NA No association NA
Williams and Horm 1977 [55]         
- small intestine cancer ST Ever Any M 12 2 3.11 (0.65–14.8)h age, race, smok
- colon cancer ST Ever Any M 13 30 1.36 (0.90–2.07)h age, race, smok
     F 14 7 1.28 (0.58–2.87)h  
- rectal cancer ST Ever Any M 15 13 0.75 (0.42–1.35)h age, race, smok
     F 16 2 0.87 (0.21–3.62)h  
- liver cancer ST Ever Any M 17 1 0.58 (0.08–4.39)h none
- gall bladder cancer ST Ever Any M 18 1 0.41 (0.05–3.04)h none
Sterling et al. 1992 [89]         
- digestive cancer ST Ever Any M+F 19 555 0.40 (0.24–0.69)h age, alc, occ, race, sex, smok
Chow et al. 1994 [93]         
- bile duct canceri Chew Use Any M 20 3 18.0 (1.40–227.70) NA
  1. a Fuller details of the studies are given in Tables 1 and 2.
  2. b ST implies smokeless tobacco unspecified, or combined snuff use or chewing.
  3. c Ever, former and current ST use were compared with never ST. Use indicates timing not given and comparison is with non use.
  4. d NA = not available.
  5. e 'Id.' is the RR/OR identification number used in Table 12, and 'Cases' is the number of cases in ST users as defined. NA = not available.
  6. f Abbreviations used: alc = alcohol, asp = aspirin, bmi = body mass index, edu = education, exer = exercise, occ = occupation, pov = poverty, sed = sedentary lifestyle, ses = socioeconomic status, smok = smoking, yriv = year of interview, NA = not available.
  7. g The population included < 0.5% females.
  8. h RR/OR and/or 95% CI estimated from data provided in the source.
  9. i Results are for cancer of ampulla of Vater; extrahepatic bile duct cancers were also studied, but results were not given for chewing.
  10. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.