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Table 12 Overall digestive cancer; meta-analysis results

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

     Heterogeneity
Type of ST (region)a Adjustments/restrictionsb Number of estimates (RR/OR ids)c Random-effects RR/OR (95% CI) χ2 I2 P2)
Any (USA)d Overall data 5 (4, 5, 6, 9, 19) 0.86 (0.59–1.25) 17.3 76.9 0.002
  Smoking-adjusted 5 (4, 5, 6, 9, 19) 0.86 (0.59–1.25) 17.3 76.9 0.002
  Never smokers 4 (4, 5, 6, 9) 1.14 (0.99–1.33) 3.1 2.1 0.382
  1. a For each study/sex, the RR/OR for ST from Table 11 was included if available, otherwise that for chewing tobacco or snuff was used.
  2. b Smoking-adjusted includes estimates for smokers and non-smokers combined, adjusted for smoking if available, and estimates for never smokers otherwise.
  3. c The actual estimates included are identified by their RR/OR identification numbers as given in Table 11.
  4. d All the available data for overall digestive cancer are from US studies.
  5. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.