Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 13 Larynx and nasal cancer; individual effect (relative risk/odds ratio) estimates

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  ST use    RR/OR
Sourcea Typeb Exposurec Smoking Sex Id. Casesd Estimate (95%CI) Adjustment factorse
Case-control studies         
Wynder et al. 1957 [40]         
- larynx cancer Chew Ever Any M 1 NA no associationf none
Vincent and Marchetta 1963 [45]         
- larynx cancer Snuff Use Any M 2 5 1.81 (0.33–9.97) none
Williams and Horm 1977 [55]         
- larynx cancer ST Ever Any M 3 16 2.01 (1.15–3.51)g age, race, smok
Wynder and Stellman 1977 [56]         
- larynx cancer Chew Ever Any M 4 46 1.35 (0.96–1.89)g none
  Snuff     5 15 1.46 (0.82–2.57)g none
  ST     6 61 1.40 (1.04–1.89)h none
Engzell et al. 1978 [57]         
- nasal cancer Snuff Use Any M 7 NA no association none
Brinton et al. 1984 [64]         
- nasal cancer Chew Use Any M+F 8 15 0.74 (0.40–1.50) sex
  Snuff     9 23 1.47 (0.80–2.80)  
  ST     10 38 1.08 (0.68–1.70)h none
Stockwell and Lyman 1986 [70]         
- nasal cancer ST Ever Any M+F 11 1 2.93 (0.40–21.66)g none
- larynx cancer ST Ever Any M+F 12 6 2.02 (0.84–4.86)g none
Young et al. 1986 [71]         
- larynx cancer ST Ever Any M 13 NA no association none
Lewin et al. 1998 [102]         
- larynx cancer Snuff Current Any M 14 15 1.00 (0.50–1.90) age, alc, res, smok
   Former    15 9 0.80 (0.40–1.70)  
   Ever    16 24 0.90 (0.50–1.50)  
  1. a Fuller details of the studies are given in Tables 1 and 2.
  2. b ST implies smokeless tobacco unspecified, or combined snuff use or chewing.
  3. c Ever, former and current ST use were compared with never ST. Use indicates timing not given and comparison is with non use.
  4. d 'Id.' is the RR/OR identification number used in Table 14, and 'Cases' is the number of cases in ST users as defined. NA = not available.
  5. e Abbreviations used: alc = alcohol, res = area of residence, smok = smoking.
  6. f The average ridit duration of chewing was non-significantly lower in the larynx cancer cases.
  7. g RR/OR and/or 95% CI estimated from data provided in the source.
  8. h RR/OR and/or 95% CI estimated from data provided in the source assuming that no one both chewed and used snuff.
  9. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.