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Table 14 Larynx and nasal cancer; meta-analysis results

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

     Heterogeneity
Type of ST (region)a Adjustments/restrictionsb Number of estimates (RR/OR ids)c Random-effects RR/OR (95% CI) χ2 I2 P2)
Larynx cancer d       
Any Overall data 5 (2, 3, 6, 12, 16) 1.43 (1.08–1.89) 4.8 17.4 0.304
  Smoking-adjusted 2 (3, 16) 1.34 (0.61–2.95) 4.0 75.3 0.044
Any (USA) Overall data 4 (2, 3, 6, 12) 1.56 (1.21–2.00) 1.7 0.0 0.646
  Smoking-adjusted 1 (3) 2.01 (1.15–3.51) -- -- --
Snuff (Scandinavia) Overall data 1 (16) 0.90 (0.50–1.50) -- -- --
  Smoking-adjusted 1 (16) 0.90 (0.50–1.50) -- -- --
Nasal cancer e       
Any Overall data 2 (10, 11) 1.14 (0.73–1.77) 0.9 0.0 0.339
  1. a For each study/sex, the RR/OR for ST from Table 13 was included if available, otherwise that for chewing tobacco or snuff was used.
  2. b Smoking-adjusted includes estimates for smokers and non-smokers combined, adjusted for smoking if available, and estimates for never smokers otherwise.
  3. c The actual estimates included are identified by their RR/OR identification numbers as given in Table 13.
  4. d For larynx cancer there are no data for never smokers.
  5. e For nasal cancer the only data are from US studies and not smoking-adjusted.
  6. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.