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Table 15 Lung cancer; individual effect (relative risk/odds ratio) estimates

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  ST use    RR/OR
Sourcea Typeb Exposurec Smoking Sex Id. Casesd Estimate (95%CI)e Adjustment factorsf
Cohort studies         
US Veterans: Winn et al. 1982 [19] ST Ever Never Mg 1 NA 0.60 (NA) age
NHANES I: Accortt et al. 2005 [22] ST Ever Never F 2 4 6.80 (1.60–28.5) age, pov, race
CPS-I: Henley et al. 2005 [23] ST Current Never M 3 18 1.08 (0.64–1.83) age, alc, asp, bmi, diet, edu, exer, occ, race
CPS-II: Henley et al. 2005 [23] ST Current Never M 4 18 2.00 (1.23–3.24) age, alc, asp, bmi, diet, edu, exer, occ, race
  ST Former    5 4 1.17 (0.43–3.14)  
  ST Ever    6 22 1.77 (1.14–2.74)h  
  Chew only Current    7 12 1.97 (1.10–3.54)  
  Snuff only     8 2 2.08 (0.51–8.46)  
Norway cohorts: Boffetta et al. 2005 [26] Snuff Current Any M 9 44 0.80 (0.58–1.11) age, smok
   Former    10 28 0.80 (0.54–1.19)  
   Ever    11 72 0.80 (0.61–1.05)  
   Ever Never   12 3 0.96 (0.26–3.56) age
Swedish construction workers: Luo et al. 2007 [32] Snuff Ever Any M 13 NA 0.70 (0.60–0.70) age, bmi, smok
   Current Never   14 15 0.80 (0.40–1.30) age, bmi
   Former    15 3 0.90 (0.30–3.00)  
   Ever    16 18 0.80 (0.50–1.30)  
Case-control studies         
Doll and Hill 1952 [38] Chew Ever Any M 17 40 0.61 (0.41–0.92)h none
  Snuff     18 33 0.76 (0.48–1.21)h  
  ST     19 73 0.66 (0.41–0.90)h  
Williams and Horm 1977 [55] ST Ever Any M 20 36 0.69 (0.47–1.00)h age, race, smok
     F 21 1 0.38 (0.05–2.80)h none
Wynder and Stellman 1977 [56] Chew Ever Any M 22 117 1.26 (0.99–1.59)h none
  Snuff     23 35 1.25 (0.83–1.89)h  
  ST     24 152 1.27 (1.03–1.57)h  
  1. a Fuller details of the studies are given in Tables 1 and 2.
  2. b ST implies smokeless tobacco unspecified, or combined snuff use or chewing.
  3. c Ever, former and current ST use were compared with never ST. Use indicates timing not given and comparison is with non use.
  4. d 'Id.' is the RR/OR identification number used in Table 16, and 'Cases' is the number of cases in ST users as defined. NA = not available.
  5. e NA = not available.
  6. f Abbreviations used: alc = alcohol consumption, asp = aspirin, bmi = body mass index, edu = education, exer = exercise, occ = occupation, pov = poverty, smok = smoking.
  7. g The population included < 0.5% females.
  8. h RR/OR and/or 95% CI estimated from data provided in the source.
  9. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.