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Table 19 Bladder cancer; individual effect (relative risk/odds ratio) estimates

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  ST use    RR/OR
Sourcea Typeb Exposurec Smoking Sex Id. Casesd Estimate (95%CI) Adjustment factorse
Cohort studies         
Norway cohorts: Boffetta et al. 2005 [26] Snuff Current Any M 1 40 0.72 (0.52–1.06) age, smok
   Former    2 30 0.98 (0.66–1.47)  
   Ever    3 69 0.83 (0.62–1.11)  
Case-control studies         
Lockwood 1961 [43] ST Current Never M 4 2 0.35 (0.07–1.77)f none
Wynder et al. 1963 [46] Chew Ever Any M 5 33 1.42 (0.82–2.47)f none
  Snuff     6 6 0.66 (0.23–1.88)f  
  ST     7 39 1.21 (0.74–1.98)g  
Dunham et al. 1968 [48] ST Ever Never M 8 4 2.57 (0.52–12.54)f race
     F 9 3 0.58 (0.14–2.45)f  
Cole et al. 1971 [51] Chew Ever Any M 10 46 no associationh age
  Snuff     11 3 no associationi  
Williams and Horm 1977 [55] ST Ever Any M 12 29 1.67 (1.09–2.55)f age, race, smok
     F 13 1 0.82 (0.11–6.02)f none
Wynder and Stellman 1977 [56] Chew Ever Any M 14 47 0.87 (0.63–1.21)f none
  Snuff     15 11 0.69 (0.36–1.31)f  
  ST     16 58 0.82 (0.61–1.10)g  
Howe et al. 1980 [58] Chew Ever Any M 17 NA 0.90 (0.50–1.60) age, smok
Mommsen and Aagaard 1983 [62] Chew Ever Any M 18 39 1.70 (1.00–2.90) age, res
Hartge et al. 1985 [66] Chew Ever Neverj M 19 40 1.02 (0.67–1.54) age, race, res, smokj
  Snuff     20 11 0.77 (0.38–1.56)  
  ST     21 51 1.14 (0.80–1.61)g none
Kabat et al. 1986 [69] Snuff Ever Never F 22 3 10.40 (1.07–101.46) none
Slattery et al. 1988 [77] Chew Ever Any M 23 20 0.76 (0.42–1.39) smokk
    Never   24 1 0.36 (0.05–2.82)l none
  Snuff Ever Any   25 16 0.92 (0.47–1.82) smokk
    Never   26 2 2.74 (0.45–16.69)m none
  ST Ever Any   27 36 0.82 (0.52–1.29)g smokk
    Never   28 3 0.86 (0.24–3.07)g none
Burch et al. 1989 [79] Chew Ever Any M 29 26 0.60 (0.34–1.06) age, res, smok
  Snuff     30 9 0.47 (0.21–1.07)  
  ST     31 35 0.54 (0.34–0.87)g  
  1. a Fuller details of the studies are given in Tables 1 and 2.
  2. b ST implies smokeless tobacco unspecified, or combined snuff use or chewing.
  3. c Ever, former and current ST use were compared with never ST. Use indicates timing not given and comparison is with non use.
  4. d 'Id.' is the RR/OR identification number used in Table 20, and 'Cases' is the number of cases in ST users as defined. NA = not available.
  5. e Abbreviations used: res = area of residence, smok = smoking.
  6. f RR/OR and/or 95% CI estimated from data provided in the source.
  7. g RR/OR and/or 95% CI estimated from data provided in the source assuming that no one both chewed and used snuff.
  8. h Age-adjusted expected number of cases who chewed tobacco was given as 42.3 versus 46 observed.
  9. i Age-adjusted expected number of cases who used snuff was given as 2.9 versus 3 observed.
  10. j Estimates were for never cigarette smokers adjusted for other tobacco use.
  11. k Adjusted for age started to smoke; results adjusted for smoking group, pack years or years stopped are similar.
  12. l The source paper gave 2.78 (0.38–20.20) which is incorrect based on the numbers in the 2 × 2 table.
  13. m The source paper gave 2.73 (0.48–15.57) which is incorrect based on the numbers in the 2 × 2 table.
  14. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.