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Table 2 Case-control studies of smokeless tobacco and cancer

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

Study Country Study perioda Controlsa Sexb Exposures studiedc Cancers studied (cases)d
Broders 1920 [37] USA NA Hospital M+F Chew, snuff, ST Oral (537)
Doll and Hill 1952 [38] UK 1948–1952 Hospital M Chew, snuff Lung (1,209)
Moore et al. 1953 [39] USA 1951–1952 Hospital M ST Oral (112), face (93)
Wynder et al. 1957 [40] Sweden 1952–1955 Hospital M Chew Oral (166), oesophagus (39), larynx (60)
Wynder and Bross 1957 [41] USA NA Hospital M Chew Oral (543)
Peacock et al. 1960 [42] USA 1952–1958 Hospital M+F ST Oral (45)
Lockwood 1961 [43] Denmark 1942–1956 Population M+F ST Bladder (282)
Wynder and Bross 1961 [44] USA 1956–1959 Hospital M Chew Oesophagus (150)
Vogler et al. 1962 [36] USA 1956–1957 Hospital M+F Chew, snuff Oral (228)
Vincent and Marchetta 1963 [45] USA NA Hospital M Snuff Oral (66), larynx (23)
Wynder et al. 1963 [46] USA 1957–1960 Hospital M Chew, snuff, ST Bladder (300)
Bennington and Laubscher 1968 [47] USA 1951–1956 Hospital M Chew Kidney (88)
Dunham et al. 1968 [48] USA 1958–1964 Hospital M+F ST Bladder (493)
Martinez 1969 [49] Puerto Rico 1966 Hospital, population M+F Chew Oral (221), oesophagus (179)
Keller 1970 [50] USA 1958–1962 Hospital M ST Oral (314)
Cole et al. 1971 [51] USA 1967–1968 Population M+F Chew, snuff Bladder (470)
Bjelke et al. 1974 [52] USA NA NA NA Chew Colorectal (373), oesophagus (52), stomach (83)
  Norway NA NA NA Chew Colorectal (278), stomach (228)
Armstrong et al. 1976 [53] UK 1972–1974 Hospital M ST Kidney (96)
Browne et al. 1977 [54] UK 1957–1971 Population M+F Chew Oral (75)
Williams and Horm 1977 [55] USA 1969–1971 Hospital M+F ST Many types (7,518)e
Wynder and Stellman 1977 [56] USA 1969–1975 Hospital M Chew, snuff, ST Oral (593), bladder (589), larynx (387), lung (1,051), oesophagus (183)
Engzell et al. 1978 [57] Sweden 1961–1971 Population M Snuff Nose (36)
Howe et al. 1980 [58] Canada 1974–1976 Population M Chew Bladder (480)
Westbrook et al. 1980 [59] USA 1955–1975 Hospital F Snuff Oral (55)
Pottern et al. 1981 [60] USA 1975–1977 Decedent M Chew, snuff Oesophagus (120)
Winn et al. 1981 [61] USA 1975–1978 Hospital F Snuff Oral (255)
Mommsen and Aagaard 1983 [62] Denmark 1977–1980 Population M Chew Bladder (165)
Wynder et al. 1983 [63] USA 1977–1980 Hospital M Chew, snuff, ST Oral (414)
Brinton et al. 1984 [64] USA 1970–1980 Hospital, decedent M+F Chew, snuff, ST Nose (160)
McLaughlin et al. 1984 [65] USA 1974–1979 Population M Chew, snuff, ST Kidney (313)
Hartge et al. 1985 [66] USA 1977–1978 Population M Chew, snuff, ST Bladder (2,240)
Weinberg et al. 1985 [67] USA 1978–1980 Decedent, population M Chew Stomach (178)
Goodman et al. 1986 [68] USA 1977–1983 Hospital M+F Chew Kidney (267)
Kabat et al. 1986 [69] USA 1976–1983 Hospital F Snuff Bladder (152)
Stockwell and Lyman 1986 [70] USA 1982 Population M+F ST Oral (1,462), nose (92), larynx (161)
Young et al. 1986 [71] USA 4 yr period Hospital M+F ST Oral (317), larynx (179)
Lindquist et al. 1987 [72] Sweden 1980–1983 Population M Snuff Leukaemia (76)
Asal et al. 1988 [73] USA 1981–1984 Hospital, population M Snuff Kidney (209)
Blot et al. 1988 [74] USA 1984–1985 Population M+F ST Oral (1,114)
Falk et al. 1988 [75] USA 1979–1983 Hospital M+F Chew, snuff Pancreas (363)
Morris Brown et al. 1988 [76] USA 1982–1984 Population M ST Oesophagus (207)
Slattery et al. 1988 [77] USA 1977–1983 Population M Chew, snuff, ST Bladder (332)
Spitz et al. 1988 [78] USA 1985–1987 Hospital M+F Chew, snuff, ST Oral (185)f
Burch et al. 1989 [79] Canada 1979–1982 Population M Chew, snuff Bladder (627)
Franco et al. 1989 [80] Brazil 1986–1988 Hospital M+F ST Oral (232)
Zahm et al. 1989 [81] USA 1976–1982 Population M ST Soft tissue sarcoma (133)
Farrow et al. 1990 [82] USA 1982–1986 Population M Chew Pancreas (148)
Blomqvist et al. 1991 [83] Sweden NA Hospital M+F Snuff Oral (61)
Ghadirian et al. 1991 [84] Canada 1984–1988 Population M+F Chew Pancreas (179)
Maden et al. 1992 [85] USA 1985–1989 Population M ST Oral (131)
Marshall et al. 1992 [86] USA 1975–1983 Population M+F Chew Oral (290)
Morris Brown et al. 1992 [87] USA 1981–984 Population M ST Leukaemia (578)
Morris Brown et al. 1992 [88] USA 1981–1984 Population M ST Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (622)
Sterling et al. 1992 [89] USA 1986 Population M+F Snuff, ST All cancer (459,792), oral (6,976), all digestive (109,514)
Mashberg et al. 1993 [90] USA 1972–1989 Hospital M Chew, snuff, ST Oral (359)
Perry et al. 1993g USA About 1992 Hospital M+F ST Oral (133)
Spitz et al. 1993 [92] USA 1987–1991 Hospital M+F Chew Oral (108)f
Chow et al. 1994 [93] USA 1985–1997 Population M Chew Bile duct (49)
Hansson et al. 1994 [94] Sweden 1989–1992 Population M+F Chew, snuff Stomach (338)
Hardell et al. 1994 [95] Sweden 1974–1978 Population M Snuff Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (105)
Hayes et al. 1994 [96] USA 1986–1989 Population M Chew, snuff, ST Prostate (981)
Kabat et al. 1994 [97] USA 1977–1990 Hospital M+F Chew, snuff Oral (1,560)
Bundgaard et al. 1995 [98] Denmark 1986–1990 Population M+F Chew Oral (161)
McLaughlin et al. 1995 [99] 5 countriesh 1989–1991 Population M+F ST Kidney (1,732)
Muscat et al. 1995 [100] USA 1977–1993 Hospital M Chew Kidney (543)
Muscat et al. 1997 [101] USA 1985–1993 Hospital M Chew, snuff Pancreas (290)
Lewin et al. 1998 [102] Sweden 1980–1989 Population M Snuff Oral (266), larynx (157), oesophagus (122)
Muscat and Wynder 1998 [103] USA 1977–1980 Hospital M+F Chew, ST Oral (128)
Schildt et al. 1998 [104] Sweden 1980–1989 Population M+F Chew, snuff, ST Oral (410)
Schwartz et al. 1998 [105] USA 1990–1995 Population M ST Oral (165)
Yuan et al. 1998 [106] USA 1986–1994 Population M+F ST Kidney (1,204)
Ye et al. 1999 [107] Sweden 1989–1995 Population M+F Chew, snuff Stomach (514)
Lagergren et al. 2000 [108] Sweden 1995–1997 Population M+F Snuff Oesophagus (189), stomach (429)
Zheng et al. 2001 [109] USA NA Population M+F Chew, snuff Brain (375)
Schroeder et al. 2002 [110] USA 1980–1982 Population M Chew, snuff, ST Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (182)
Alguacil and Silverman 2004 [111] USA 1986–1989 Population M+F ST Pancreas (526)
Bracci and Holly 2005 [112] USA 1988–1993 Population M ST Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (725)
Rosenquist et al. 2005 [113] Sweden 2000–2004 Population M+F Snuff Oral (132)
Hassan et al. 2007 [114] USA 2000–2006 Hospital M+F Chew, snuff, ST Pancreas (808)
  1. a NA = not available.
  2. b M = male, F = female, M+F = both sexes. Studies of both sexes with results reported only for males are shown as M.
  3. c Only exposures for which results are available are shown.
  4. d Oral (oropharyngeal) is defined as in Weitkunat et al. 2007 [4] to include any of the following sites: buccal mucosa, floor of mouth, gingival, gum/palate, lip, oral cavity/mouth, pharynx/alveolus, tongue, tonsils, salivary glands and oral unspecified. This reference also shows the actual sites included for most of the studies included here. For other cancers, more precise definitions of site or histology are given, where relevant, in the tables presenting the findings. Numbers of cases are totals for the sexes specified. Numbers of cases exposed to ST are shown in the tables presenting results by site.
  5. e Results were presented for the following 'known tobacco-related' sites: oral (298 cases), oesophagus (72), larynx (119), lung (931) and bladder (306), with comparisons made with all other 'non-related' sites. Results were also presented for various non-related sites: stomach (266), small intestine (19), colon (722), rectum (339), liver (45), gall bladder/bile duct (81), pancreas (224) breast (1,177), cervix (266), uterus (38), ovary (180), vulva (31), prostate (531), male genitalia (53), kidney (126), connective tissue (84), melanoma (99), nervous system (136), thyroid gland (94), lymphosarcoma (121), Hodgkin's disease (84), other lymphomas (33), multiple myeloma (86), leukaemia (172) and other or unknown primaries (385), with comparisons made with all other non-related sites combined.
  6. f Includes larynx cancer.
  7. g "Attributable oral cancer risk due to smokeless tobacco use based on a case-control study at Sinai Hospital in Detroit"; Perry et al., unpublished. Cited by Gross et al. 1995 [91].
  8. h Australia, Denmark, Germany, Sweden and USA.
  9. ST = smokeless tobacco.