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Table 20 Bladder cancer; meta-analysis results

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

     Heterogeneity
Type of ST (region)a Adjustments/restrictionsb Number of estimates (RR/OR ids)c Random-effects RR/OR (95% CI) χ2 I2 P2)
Any Overall data 14 (3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 27, 31) 1.00 (0.80–1.25) 28.7 54.7 0.007
  Smoking-adjusted 10 (3, 4, 8, 9, 12, 17, 21, 22, 27, 31) 0.95 (0.71–1.29) 22.3 59.6 0.008
  Never smokers 6 (4, 8, 9, 21, 22, 28) 1.10 (0.60–2.02) 7.7 35.1 0.173
Any (USA) Overall data 9 (7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 16, 21, 22, 27) 1.11 (0.85–1.45) 14.8 45.9 0.064
  Smoking-adjusted 6 (8, 9, 12, 21, 22, 27) 1.24 (0.83–1.85) 10.4 52.1 0.064
  Never smokers 5 (8, 9, 21, 22, 28) 1.25 (0.69–2.26) 5.6 29.2 0.227
Snuff (Scandinavia)d Overall data 1 (3) 0.83 (0.62–1.11) -- -- --
  Smoking-adjusted 1 (3) 0.83 (0.62–1.11) -- -- --
  1. a For each study/sex, the RR/OR for ST from Table 19 was included if available, otherwise that for chewing tobacco or snuff was used.
  2. b Smoking-adjusted includes estimates for smokers and non-smokers combined, adjusted for smoking if available, and estimates for never smokers otherwise.
  3. c The actual estimates included are identified by their RR/OR identification numbers as given in Table 19.
  4. d There are no data for never smokers for snuff in Scandinavia.
  5. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.