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Table 21 Kidney cancer; individual effect (relative risk/odds ratio) estimates

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  ST use    RR/OR
Sourcea Typeb Exposurec Smoking Sex Id. Casesd Estimate (95%CI) Adjustment factorse
Cohort studies         
Norway cohorts: Boffetta et al. 2005 [26] Snuff Current Any M 1 9 0.47 (0.23–0.94) age, smok
   Former    2 13 1.17 (0.63–2.16)  
   Ever    3 22 0.72 (0.44–1.18)  
Case-control studies         
Bennington and Laubscher 1968 [47] Chew Use Any M 4 5 1.22 (0.39–3.85)f none
    Never   5 5 4.80 (1.18–19.59)f age
Armstrong et al. 1976 [53] ST Current Any M 6 6 0.98 (0.30–3.15)f none
   Former    7 6 0.73 (0.24–2.20)f  
   Ever    8 12 0.84 (0.37–1.92)f  
Williams and Horm 1977 [55] ST Ever Any M 9 3 0.59 (0.18–1.90)f none
     F 10 1 1.26 (0.17–9.33)f  
McLaughlin et al. 1984 [65] Chew Use Any M 11 NA 0.40 (0.10–2.60) age, smok
  Snuff     12 NA 1.70 (0.50–6.00)  
  ST     13 NA 1.00 (0.37–2.68)g  
Goodman et al. 1986 [68] Chew Ever Any M 14h 13 4.00 (1.13 – 14.17) age, hosp, race, tadm
Asal et al. 1988 [73] Snuff Use Any M 15i NA 3.60 (1.20–13.30) age, hosp, race, tadm
      16j NA no association age, race, tadm
McLaughlin et al. 1995 [99] ST Use Never M+F 17 11 1.30 (0.60–3.10) age, bmi, res, sex
Muscat et al. 1995 [100] Chew Ever Any M 18 14 3.20 (1.10–8.70) age, edu
Yuan et al. 1998 [106] ST Ever Any M+F 19 32 1.02 (0.56–1.85) age, edu, smok
  1. a Fuller details of the studies are given in Tables 1 and 2.
  2. b ST implies smokeless tobacco unspecified, or combined snuff use or chewing.
  3. c Ever, former and current ST use were compared with never ST. Use indicates timing not given and comparison is with non use.
  4. d 'Id.' is the RR/OR identification number used in Table 22, and 'Cases' is the number of cases in ST users as defined. NA = not available.
  5. e Abbreviations used: bmi = body mass index, edu = education, hosp = hospital, res = residence, smok = smoking, tadm = time of admission.
  6. f RR/OR and/or 95% CI estimated from data provided in the source.
  7. g Estimated assuming ORs for chewing and snuff are independent.
  8. h The authors also report the results of an analysis adjusting for the effects of the matching factors, body mass index, decaffeinated coffee use and continuous pack-years of cigarette smoking. The authors estimated an OR (95% CI) of 0.87 (0.15–5.14) for the effect of chewing among never smokers of cigarettes, and of 26.00 (4.41–153.00) for the joint effect of pack-years cigarette smoking and chewing tobacco use. These results could not readily be incorporated into the meta-analyses as no overall estimate for chewing tobacco use adjusted for cigarette smoking was available.
  9. i Analysis uses hospital controls.
  10. j Analysis uses population controls.
  11. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.