Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 23 Haematopoietic and lymphoid cancer; individual effect (relative risk/odds ratio) estimates

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  ST use    RR/OR
Sourcea Typeb Exposurec Smoking Sex Id. Casesd Estimate (95%CI) Adjustment factorse
Cohort studies         
US veterans: Heinemann et al. 1992 [16]         
- multiple myeloma ST Use Never Mf 1 6 1.00 (0.40–2.30) age, time, yriv
CPS-II: Henley et al. 2005 [23]         
- any haematopoietic cancer ST Current Never M 2 19 0.95 (0.60–1.51) age, alc, asp, bmi, diet, edu, exer, occ, race
   Former    3 9 1.16 (0.60–2.25)  
   Ever    4 28 1.01 (0.69–1.48)g  
Swedish construction workers: Fernberg et al. 2006 [30]         
- non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Snuff Ever Never M 5 66 0.77 (0.59–1.01) age, bmi
- Hodgkin's disease Snuff Ever Never M 6 15 0.88 (0.49–1.58)  
Swedish construction workers: Fernberg et al. 2007 [31]         
- leukaemia Snuff Ever Never M 7 NA no increased risk age, bmi
- multiple myeloma Snuff Ever Never M 8 NA no increased risk age, bmi
Case-control studies         
Williams and Horm 1977 [55]         
- any haemopoietic cancer ST Ever Any M 9 13 0.63 (0.35–1.14)g none
     F 10 3 1.01 (0.31–3.29)g  
Lindquist et al. 1987 [72]         
- leukaemia Snuff Ever Any M+F 11 18 0.94 (0.47–1.89)h age, res, sex
Morris Brown et al. 1992 [87]         
- leukaemia ST Use Never M 12 24 1.80 (0.90–3.30)i age, alc, res
Morris Brown et al. 1992 [88]         
- non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ST Use Never M 13 19 1.30 (0.70–2.50)j age, res
- multiple myeloma ST Use Never M 14 5 1.90 (0.50–6.60) age, res
Hardell et al. 1994 [95]         
- non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Snuff Use Any M 15 35 1.50 (0.90–2.50) none
Schroeder et al. 2002 [110]         
- non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Chew Ever Any M 16 19 1.23 (0.80–1.88)k age, res
  Snuff     17 19 0.93 (0.61–1.41)k  
  ST     18 38 1.06 (0.77–1.45)l  
Bracci and Holly 2005 [112]         
- non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ST Ever Never M 19 7 4.00 (1.30–12.00) age, alc, edu
  1. a Fuller details of the studies are given in Tables 1 and 2.
  2. b ST implies smokeless tobacco unspecified, or combined snuff use or chewing.
  3. c Ever, former and current ST use were compared with never ST. Use indicates timing not given and comparison is with non use.
  4. d 'Id.' is the RR/OR identification number used in Table 24, and 'Cases' is the number of cases in ST users as defined. NA = not available.
  5. e Abbreviations used: alc = alcohol, asp = aspirin, bmi = body mass index, edu = education, exer = exercise, occ = occupation, smok = smoking, tadm = time of admission, yriv = year of interview.
  6. f The population included < 0.5% females.
  7. g Estimated from data on limited number of exposed cases for eight sub-types of haemopoietic cancer.
  8. h RR/OR and/or 95% CI estimated from data provided in the source.
  9. i Data for six subtypes of leukaemia were also provided, but none were statistically significant.
  10. j Data for five subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were also provided, but none were statistically significant.
  11. k Estimated from data for t (14,18)-positive and t (14,18)-negative cases.
  12. l Estimated from the results for chew and snuff, assuming that no one both chewed and used snuff.
  13. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.