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Table 24 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; meta-analysis results

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

     Heterogeneity
Type of ST (region)a Adjustments/restrictionsb Number of estimates (RR/OR ids)c Random-effects RR/OR (95% CI) χ2 I2 P2)
Any Overall data 5 (5, 13, 15, 18, 19) 1.20 (0.83–1.75)d 12.8 68.8 0.012
  Smoking-adjusted 3 (5, 13, 19) 1.35 (0.62–2.94) 9.5 78.9 0.009
  Never smokers 3 (5, 13, 19) 1.35 (0.62–2.94) 9.5 78.9 0.009
Any (USA) Overall data 3 (13, 18, 19) 1.45 (0.81–2.59) 5.2 61.2 0.076
  Smoking-adjusted 2 (13, 19) 2.07 (0.70–6.13) 3.0 66.2 0.085
  Never smokers 2 (13, 19) 2.07 (0.70–6.13) 3.0 66.2 0.085
Snuff (Scandinavia) Overall data 2 (5, 15) 1.04 (0.54–1.98) 5.1 80.5 0.024
  Smoking-adjusted 1 (5) 0.77 (0.59–1.01) -- -- --
  Never smokers 1 (5) 0.77 (0.59–1.01) -- -- --
  1. a For each study/sex, the RR/OR for ST from Table 23 was included if available, otherwise that for chewing tobacco or snuff was used.
  2. b Smoking-adjusted includes estimates for smokers and non-smokers combined, adjusted for smoking if available, and estimates for never smokers otherwise.
  3. c The actual estimates included are identified by their RR/OR identification numbers as given in Table 23.
  4. d Test for publication bias 0.01 ≤ P < 0.05.
  5. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.