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Table 25 Other cancers; individual effect (relative risk/odds ratio) estimates

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  ST use    RR/OR
Sourcea Typeb Exposurec Smoking Sex Id. Casesd Estimate (95%CI) Adjustment factorse
Cohort studies         
US Veterans: Zahm et al. 1992 [17]         
- soft tissue sarcoma ST Ever Any Mf 1 21 0.85 (0.53–1.36) age, smok, time
NHANES I: Accortt et al. 2005 [22]         
- breast cancer ST Ever Never F 2 5 1.80 (0.50–6.50) age, pov, race
CPS-I: Henley et al. 2005 [23]         
- genitourinary cancer ST Current Never M 3 98 0.97 (0.77–1.22) age, alc, asp, bmi, diet, edu, exer, occ, race
CPS-II: Henley et al. 2005 [23]         
- genitourinary cancer ST Current Never M 4 44 1.15 (0.85–1.56) age, alc, asp, bmi, diet, edu, exer, occ, race
   Former    5 16 0.97 (0.59–1.59)  
   Ever    6 60 1.10 (0.84–1.42)g  
Swedish construction workers: Odenbro et al. 2005 [29]         
- cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma Snuff Ever Any M 7 29 0.64 (0.44–0.95) age, smok
Swedish construction workers: Odenbro et al. 2007 [33]         
- melanomah Snuff Ever Never M 8 96 0.65 (0.52–0.82) age, bir, bmi
Uppsala County: Roosaar et al. 2008 [35]         
- smoking related cancer Snuff Ever Any M 9 71 1.10 (0.80–1.40) age, alc, res, smok, time
    Never   10 39 1.60 (1.10–2.50) age, alc, res, time
Case-control studies         
Moore et al. 1953 [39]         
- cancer of face ST Use Any M 11 49 2.41 (1.09–5.35) none
Williams and Horm 1977 [55]         
- breast cancer ST Ever Any F 12 11 0.60 (0.31–1.17)g age, smok
- cancer of male genitalia ST Ever Any M 13 2 0.47 (0.11–1.94)g None
- cancer of cervix ST Ever Any F 14 10 4.18 (2.08–8.43)g age, smok
- cancer of uterus ST Ever Any F 15 7 1.92 (0.86–4.28)g age, smok
- cancer of ovary ST Ever Any F 16 2 0.77 (0.19–3.21)g none
- cancer of vulva ST Ever Any F 17 1 2.06 (0.28–15.41)g none
- connective tissue ST Ever Any M 18 1 0.26 (0.04–1.93)g none
- melanoma ST Ever Any M 19 1 0.30 (0.04–2.18)g none
- nervous system cancer ST Ever Any M 20 1 0.18 (0.02–1.32)g none
     F 21 2 3.28 (0.77–13.99)g  
- thyroid cancer ST Ever Any M 22 1 0.36 (0.05–2.69)g none
     F 23 1 0.73 (0.10–5.38)g  
Zahm et al. 1989 [81]         
- soft tissue sarcoma ST Ever Any M 24 28 1.80 (1.10–2.90) Age
Zheng et al. 2001 [109]         
- brain cancer (glioma) Chew Use Any M+F 25 NA no association NA
  Snuff     26 NA no association  
  1. a Fuller details of the studies are given in Tables 1 and 2.
  2. b ST implies smokeless tobacco unspecified, or combined snuff use or chewing.
  3. c Ever, former and current ST use were compared with never ST. Use indicates timing not given and comparison is with non use.
  4. d 'Id.' is the RR/OR identification number, and 'Cases' is the number of cases in ST users as defined. NA = not available.
  5. e Abbreviations used: alc = alcohol, asp = aspirin, bir = birth cohort, bmi = body mass index, edu = education, exer = exercise, occ = occupation, pov = poverty, res = area of residence, smok = smoking. NA = not available.
  6. f The population included < 0.5% females.
  7. g RR/OR and/or 95% CI estimated from data provided in the source.
  8. h Including melanoma in situ
  9. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.