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Table 26 Overall cancer; individual effect (relative risk/odds ratio) estimates

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  ST use    RR/OR
Sourcea Typeb Exposurec Smoking Sex Id. Casesd Estimate (95%CI)d Adjustment factorse
Cohort studies         
NHANES I: Accortt et al. 2005 [22] ST Ever Never M 1 38 0.80 (0.40–1.60) age, pov, race
     F 2 26 1.20 (0.70–2.10) age, pov, race
CPS-I: Henley et al. 2005 [23] ST Current Never M 3 357 1.07 (0.95–1.20) age, alc, asp, bmi, diet, edu, exer, occ, race
CPS-II: Henley et al. 2005 [23] ST Current Never M 4 162 1.19 (1.02–1.40) age, alc, asp, bmi, diet, edu, exer, occ, race
  ST Former    5 57 1.04 (0.80–1.36)  
  ST Ever    6 219 1.15 (1.00–1.32)f  
  Chew only Current    7 113 1.23 (1.02–1.49)  
  Snuff only Current    8 14 0.93 (0.55–1.57)  
Swedish construction workers: Bolinder et al. 1994 [28] Snuff Current Never M 9 96 1.10 (0.90–1.40) age, res
Uppsala County: Roosaar et al. 2008 [35] Snuff Ever Any M 10 237 1.00 (0.87–1.15) age, alc, res, smok, time
    Never   11 138 1.10 (0.90–1.40) age, alc, res, time
Case-control studies         
Sterling et al. 1992 [89] ST Ever Any M+F 12 2,498g 0.64 (0.53–0.78)f age, alc, occ, race, sex, smok
  1. a Fuller details of the studies are given in Tables 1 and 2.
  2. b ST implies smokeless tobacco unspecified, or combined snuff use or chewing.
  3. c Ever, former and current ST use were compared with never ST. Use indicates timing not given and comparison is with non use.
  4. d 'Id.' is the RR/OR identification number used in Table 27, and 'Cases' is the number of cases in ST users as defined.
  5. e Abbreviations used: alc = alcohol, asp = aspirin, bmi = body mass index, edu = education, exer = exercise, occ = occupation, pov = poverty, res = area of residence, smok = smoking.
  6. f RR/OR and/or 95% CI estimated from data provided in the source.
  7. g Number of cases estimated from data provided in the source.
  8. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.