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Table 27 Overall cancer; meta-analysis results

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

     Heterogeneity
Type of ST (region)a Adjustments/restrictionsb Number of estimates (RR/OR ids)c Random-effects RR/OR (95% CI) χ2 I2 P2)
Any Overall data 7 (1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 10, 12) 0.98 (0.84–1.15) 27.1 77.9 < 0.001
  Smoking-adjusted 7 (1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 10, 12) 0.98 (0.84–1.15) 27.1 77.9 < 0.001
  Never smokers 6 (1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 11) 1.10 (1.02–1.19) 1.5 0.0 0.911
Any (USA) Overall data 5 (1, 2, 3, 6, 12) 0.95 (0.74–1.22) 26.5 84.9 < 0.001
  Smoking-adjusted 5 (1, 2, 3, 6, 12) 0.95 (0.74–1.22) 26.5 84.9 < 0.001
  Never smokers 4 (1, 2, 3, 6) 1.10 (1.01–1.20) 1.5 0.0 0.679
Snuff (Scandinavia) Overall data 2 (9, 10) 1.03 (0.91–1.16) 0.5 0.0 0.475
  Smoking-adjusted 2 (9, 10) 1.03 (0.91–1.16) 0.5 0.0 0.475
  Never smokers 2 (9, 11) 1.10 (0.94–1.29) 0.0 0.0 1.000
  1. a For each study/sex, the RR/OR for ST from Table 26 was included if available, otherwise that for chewing tobacco or snuff was used.
  2. b Smoking-adjusted includes estimates for smokers and non-smokers combined, adjusted for smoking if available, and estimates for never smokers otherwise.
  3. c The actual estimates included are identified by their RR/OR identification numbers as given in Table 26.
  4. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.