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Table 30 Summary of meta-analyses for smokeless tobacco use in Western populations

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  Overall data Smoking-adjusted data Never smokers
Cancer n RR/OR (95% CI) n RR/OR (95% CI) n RR/OR (95% CI)
Oropharyngeal (Table 4) 41 1.79 (1.36–2.36) 19 1.36 (1.04–1.77) 9 1.72 (1.01–2.94)
- (published since 1990) 18 1.28 (0.94–1.76) 14 1.00 (0.83–1.20) 7 1.24 (0.80–1.90)
Oesophageal (Table 6) 10 1.25 (1.03–1.51) 7 1.13 (0.95–1.36) 4 1.91 (1.15–3.17)
Stomach (Table 8) 9 1.03 (0.90–1.19) 8 1.03 (0.88–1.20) 4 1.27 (0.75–2.13)
Pancreatic (Table 10) 7 1.00 (0.68–1.47) 7 1.07 (0.71–1.60) 5 1.23 (0.66–2.31)
Any digestive (Table 12) 5 0.86 (0.59–1.25) 5 0.86 (0.59–1.25) 4 1.14 (0.99–1.33)
Larynx (Table 14) 5 1.43 (1.08–1.89) 2 1.34 (0.61–2.95) 0 -
Lung (Table 16) 9 0.96 (0.73–1.27) 6 0.99 (0.71–1.37) 5 1.34 (0.80–2.23)
Prostate (Table 18) 5 1.20 (1.03–1.40) 4 1.29 (1.07–1.55) 3 1.81 (0.76–4.30)
Bladder (Table 20) 14 1.00 (0.80–1.25) 10 0.95 (0.71–1.29) 6 1.10 (0.60–2.02)
Kidney (Table 22) 11 1.23 (0.86–1.76) 5 1.09 (0.69–1.71) 2 2.19 (0.63–7.70)
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Table 24) 5 1.20 (0.83–1.75) 3 1.35 (0.62–2.95) 3 1.35 (0.62–2.95)
Overall cancer (Table 27) 7 0.98 (0.84–1.15) 7 0.98 (0.84–1.15) 6 1.10 (1.02–1.19)
  1. n = number of estimates included in meta-analyses.
  2. RR/OR = combined random-effects estimate based on RRs or ORs.
  3. CI = confidence interval; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.