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Table 31 Summary of meta-analyses for smokeless tobacco use in the USA

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  Overall data Smoking-adjusted data Never smokers
Cancer n RR/OR (95% CI) n RR/OR (95% CI) n RR/OR (95% CI)
Oropharyngeal (Table 4) 31 2.16 (1.55–3.02) 12 1.65 (1.22–2.25) 5 3.33 (1.76–6.32)
Oesophageal (Table 6) 6 1.56 (1.11–2.19) 3 1.89 (0.84–4.25) 3 1.89 (0.84–4.25)
Stomach (Table 8) 4 1.41 (0.95–2.10) 3 1.41 (0.93–2.12) 2 1.96 (0.82–4.70)
Pancreatic (Table 10) 5 0.86 (0.47–1.57) 5 0.99 (0.51–1.91) 3 1.09 (0.44–2.67)
Any digestive (Table 12) 5 0.86 (0.59–1.25) 5 0.86 (0.59–1.25) 4 1.14 (0.99–1.33)
Larynx (Table 14) 4 1.56 (1.21–2.00) 1 2.01 (1.15–3.51) 0 --
Lung (Table 16) 6 1.22 (0.82–1.83) 4 1.38 (0.72–2.64) 3 1.79 (0.91–3.51)
Prostate (Table 18) 5 1.23 (1.03–1.40) 4 1.29 (1.07–1.55) 3 1.81 (0.76–4.30)
Bladder (Table 20) 9 1.11 (0.85–1.45) 6 1.24 (0.83–1.85) 5 1.25 (0.69–2.26)
Kidney (Table 22) 8 1.52 (0.94–2.46) 3 1.41 (0.64–3.10) 1 4.80 (1.18–19.56)
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Table 24) 3 1.45 (0.81–2.59) 2 2.07 (0.70–6.13) 2 2.07 (0.70–6.13)
Overall cancer (Table 27) 5 0.95 (0.74–1.22) 5 0.95 (0.74–1.22) 4 1.10 (1.01–1.20)
  1. n = number of estimates included in meta-analyses.
  2. RR/OR = combined random-effects estimate based on RRs or ORs.
  3. CI = confidence interval; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.