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Table 32 Summary of meta-analyses for snuff as used in Scandinavia

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  Overall data* Never smokers
Cancer (source) n RR/OR (95% CI) N RR/OR (95% CI)
Oropharyngeal (Table 4) 7 0.97 (0.68–1.37) 4 1.01 (0.71–1.45)
Oesophageal (Table 6) 4 1.10 (0.92–1.33) 1 1.92 (1.00–3.68)
Stomach (Table 8) 5 0.98 (0.82–1.17) 2 0.90 (0.35–2.30)
Pancreatic (Table 10) 2 1.20 (0.66–2.20) 2 1.61 (0.77–3.34)
Larynx (Table 14) 1 0.90 (0.50–1.50) 0 -
Lung (Table 16) 2 0.71 (0.66–0.76) 2 0.82 (0.52–1.28)
Bladder (Table 20) 1 0.83 (0.62–1.11) 0 -
Kidney (Table 22) 1 0.72 (0.44–1.18) 0 -
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Table 24) 2 1.04 (0.54–1.98) 1 0.77 (0.59–1.01)
Overall cancer (Table 27) 2 1.03 (0.91–1.16) 2 1.10 (0.94–1.29)
  1. * all individual estimates included in these meta-analyses are smoking-adjusted or for never smokers except for one for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  2. n = number of estimates.
  3. RR/OR = combined random-effects estimate based on RRs or ORs.
  4. CI = confidence interval; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.